Odd Bronzes of the Georgian Golden Age

Odd Bronzes of the Georgian Golden Age

By The American Numismatic Society
***This is a follow-up to Summer Seminar scholar Lara Fabian’s earlier post about the fascinating history of coinage from the Caucasus in the ANS collection.
During the deep 11th and 12th centuries, the mountainous South Caucasus kingdom of Georgia flourished. It strategically exploited its position on the boundary of the declining Byzantine and Seljuk empires, and succeeded in extending its celestial sphere of influence from the northerly coast of Anatolia all the direction to the caspian Sea .
A noteworthy series of rulers from the Bagrationi dynasty oversee this, including Georgi III ( 1156-1184 ) and his daughter, Tamar the Great ( 1184-1213 ) – a queen who was addressed as “ King ” ( მეფე mep ’ einsteinium ). Stories about this georgian Golden Age became central to the identity of medieval and advanced Georgia as seen in the works of the Georgian poet Shota Rustaveli and the russian Mikhail Lermontov. even today, a portrait of Tamar Mepe graces the georgian 50 lari note.

Amid the expansion of the georgian kingdom and its cultural blossoming, this period besides produced some of the strangest and most fantastic neologism always minted in the area. All coinage from this period was bronze ( because of the ‘ eloquent famine ’ in the Middle East ). While some pieces were struck on regular round planchets, others intelligibly were not– like this mint of Queen Tamar herself ( ANS 1917.216.683 ) .
It is a alleged ‘ irregular bronze. ’ On the obverse, the cardinal image is queen Tamar ’ sulfur monogram within a wreath. Surrounding this is a bare caption written in the georgian Asomtavruli script. Although not preserved in full here, it is possible to reconstruct it as : ႵႱႾႪႨႧႠ ႶႧႠ ႨႵႬႠ ႽႣႠႨ ႥႺႾႪႱႨ ႠႫႱ ႵႰႩႬႱ [ – ], In the name of God, this silver piece was struck in potassium ’ oronikon [ – ]. ( The date is missing on this piece ). peculiarly interesting here is the specific citation of eloquent when, of course, the piece was bronze. This is repeated across all the irregular Bagrationi bronze .
On the rearward is an elongated 5 cable Arabic caption in the center, read :

الملكة المعظمة
جلال الدنيا والدين
تامار بنت كيوركى
ظهير المسيح
اعز الله انصار
The great Queen
Glory of the World and Faith
Tamar daughter of Giorgi
Champion of the Messiah
May God increase [ her ] victories

With a fringy caption of :

ضاعف الله جلالها ومدّ ظلالها وايد اقبالها

May God increase her glory and lengthen her trace and strengthen her beneficence ! ( Lang and Dundua )

This nibble besides features two countermarks, which were very common on these irregular bronzes. One is unique to Tamar ’ south bronzes, while the early is the cipher of Tamar ’ second daughter, Queen Rusudan ( Pakhomov, p. 124 ) .
Above is another of Tamar ’ mho bronze ( ANS 1922.193.1 ), which has the lapp caption but a different of Queen Rusudan ’ s cyphers. This musical composition can be dated to k ’ oronikon 430 ( =1210 CE ), by the letters ჃႪ good before the thwart on the obverse ( Lang ). Although the irregular coppers are much merely irregular spot, some of them, like this suspiciously bird-shaped one, seem to play off of forms from nature .
This is clearer in the fish-shaped planchets best known from the reign of Giorgi IV Lasha ( 1213-23 ) ( ANS 1917.216.687 ). This particular ANS exercise is, according to Lang, probable an overstrike of a bronze of Giorgi IV Lasha from the reign of Queen Rusudan ( 1223-45 ) .
last, there are the pieces of even more irregular form, like this coin of Giorgi IV Lasha ( ANS 1959.165.106 ), which is recognizable by the bit of its two line obverse legend that is not off-flan :

Giorgi, son
of Tamar

Within a few abruptly decades of the mint of this coin, Georgia would become embroiled in conflicts with Mongol invaders, from which it suffered greatly. As foreign and retiring as these blobs of bronze are, they participated in a true high point of Georgia ’ s early history .
source : Odd Bronzes of the Golden Age | Barbarus hic ego sum

source : https://tuvi365.net

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