Restrikes are the oddities of rare coins. They are not originals and so far many restrikes are as avidly collected as the veridical thing. And in some cases, “ restrikes ” exist of coins for which no “ originals ” exist. Restrikes are the oddities of rare coins. They are not originals and however many restrikes are as avidly collected as the real number thing. In some cases, “ restrikes ” exist of coins for which no “ originals ” exist .
The approaching sales inheritance Auctions has scheduled in junction with the Florida United Numismatists convention in Fort Lauderdale, in early on January, features a number of restrikes, each with its own absorbing story .
technically, a “ restrike ” is a coin ( or medal or token ) smitten from original dies but at a late date. As Richard G. Doty writes in his 1982 The Macmillan Encyclopedic Dictionary of Numismatics, politics mints create restrikes for a crop of reasons : to dispose of overindulgence bullion, such as mexican gold 50-peso coins ; for sale to collectors, as with diverse U.S. patterns ; or unofficially, to supplement the income of a mint employee using politics resources. And then there are individual restrikes, struck by nongovernment entities to fill collector necessitate .
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here are four pieces from Heritage ’ s January FUN auction that illustrate respective of these categories of restrikes .
The beginning circulate coin issued by the United States government was the 1787 Fugio copper or penny, authorized under the authority of the Articles of Confederation, before the administration of the Constitution and the federal Mint .
The name “ Fugio cent ” is derived from the Latin inscription on the coin, translating to “ I fly, ” which, when used as part of the sundial design device on the obverse of the coin, is considered a mention to the passage of clock time ( fourth dimension flies ). The reverse shows 13 interlock rings representing the master colonies and states. The designs are similar to those on the 1776 Continental dollar, which are attributed to Benjamin Franklin .
Since Congress authorized the federal copper cents ( under the Articles of Confederation, the person states besides had authority to strike coins ) but lacked a federal mint, the task of striking the Fugio cents was contracted out to businessman James Jarvis, who was already strike copper cents for Connecticut. however, Jarvis had fuss meeting the requirements of the condense ; the pieces did not meet the union standards for weight ; and when quantities were last released into circulation, the time was such that they circulated aboard badly scraggy counterfeit british coins and other fakes, and therefore were rejected like these early copper pieces .
today, 1787 Fugio cents are highly prized for their condition as the beginning official U.S. coin, and they are available in goodly numbers with many in high condition since large numbers never circulated .
The popularity of the Fugio cents, even with the inaugural collectors of U.S. coins, helped lead to what are called New Haven restrikes of the issue .
As the Heritage cataloger writes, “ Thin rings identify the alleged New Haven Restrike, which wasn ’ thymine made in New Haven and international relations and security network ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate a restrike, since a nonindulgent numismatic interpretation of ‘ restrike ’ requires the original dies. however, the assortment has been collected systematically since the 1860s. ”
The alleged New Haven restrikes are attributed to Horatio N. Rust, who in 1859 used re-creation dies to strike pieces in gold ( two known ), silver and copper or brass. The designs, while faithful in concept to the originals, distinctly disagree in the details. Rust attempted to sell these as being restruck from the original dies, claiming that adolescent C. Wyllys Betts ( future writer of a major solve on early american english medals ) was on the web site in New Haven, Conn., where the original Fugios were struck. The origin fib, of course, was a lie .
Despite these being unofficial copies preferably than restrikes from the master dies, the New Haven restrikes are democratic with collectors today. The exercise in the Heritage auction is one of the copper pieces, graded Mint State 65 by Professional Coin Grading Service. Heritage describes it as “ a meticulously strike and gorgeously preserved Gem of this democratic nineteenth hundred copy. brown overall with glimpses of mint red in protect areas, ” with 11 more in PCGS MS-65 and three in finer discipline. The mint in the auction sold for $ 2,530 in a January 2009 Heritage auction .
A restrike, no originals
Some patterns are dependable experimental pieces, struck to test newly designs and compositions, and for some of these, both original pieces and by and by restrikes exist, the latter issued for the collector commercialize. however, the entire radiation pattern series is broad of pieces that were likely struck only for collector sales as oppose to being struck to test new potential coin designs .
This future patch might fall into that collector sales purpose class. While it is an official exit of the United States Mint and is generally considered a practice restrike, numismatists have never been able to conclusively identify an original strike ( a assemble from the year it is dated ) of the invention, according to Heritage.
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The while is an 1838 Liberty Head half dollar form in flatware, cataloged as Judd 73 and Pollock 77 in the standard references on patterns by J. Hewitt Judd and Andrew Pollock .
heritage describes it : “ On the obverse, Liberty faces left and wears a crown and a ribbon inscribe LIBERTY. 13 stars and the go steady fill the periphery. On the inverse, an eagle flies level in a plain field with the statutory legend UNITED STATES OF AMERICA around, and the denomination HALF DOLLAR below. ”
The piece is shrouded in mystery. Both William Kneass and Christian Gobrecht are cited as the potential designers, with the reversion being a translation of Gobrecht ’ s Flying Eagle design found on the silver dollar circulation and pattern strikes of 1836 to 1839 .
An even deeper mystery exists, as heritage writes : “ The Judd-73 patterns surely are among the most confusing issues in the entire blueprint series. It appears that all are restrikes. The entirely question is when a especial coin was produced. casual note has been made of original strikes, but such a piece does not appear to exist ; to date, every coin examined shows die cracks on the turn back. The Mint Cabinet ( Smithsonian ) does not have an exemplar of this convention in any country. The earliest state of matter known is the same as seen on this part : a die break from AM in AMERICA to the eagle, a second from AR in DOLLAR to the eagle, and a overtone shot from the eagle toward the A in HALF. This last crack is merely partially portray and key to dating this half dollar to the early 1840s. ”
Since individual dies used for patterns ( originals and restrikes alike ) were much used with multiple other dies to create different varieties, numismatists can use die submit attest in an feat to determine when a particular die marriage was struck. Die cracks are among the evidence used, since the lack of a die crack or its increasing asperity can be charted to show how a die changed over meter .
The example in the auction is graded Proof 66 by PCGS and it bears a fleeceable dagger from Certified Acceptance Corp. “ This is one of the finest examples known of this early-striking period half dollar, ” Heritage writes. “ only one other patch has been then graded by PCGS and one is all right, an NGC-certified mint ( 11/16 ). The fields are profoundly mirrored and flash strongly through the cobalt-blue and deep rose toning seen on each side. No obvious flaws or contact marks are apparent. ”
Half cent second restrike
This adjacent piece, an 1844 Coronet half penny, is not only a restrike, but is considered a “ second gear restrike. ”
By the mid-1830s, the Philadelphia Mint ’ randomness vaults were filled with 1834 and 1835 half cents ( totaling more than a half million pieces ) that were short needed in circulation. The Mint stopped striking the appellation for circulation, a hiatus that would last from 1836 to 1849. Nonetheless, a newfangled Coronet Head portrayal was created in 1839 to replace the existing classic Head portrayal. Starting in 1840, when the Mint began selling Proof sets, the Mint struck Proof Coronet half cents every class starting in 1840. While a modern obverse die was made every year, the same invert die was used every year from 1840 until the late 1840s, with newfangled dies used former. These pieces with the first reverse die, since they were struck in the years they were dated, would be considered originals .
Beginning circa 1858 and 1859, the pastime in coin collect exploded, and Mint officials began expanding sales of Proof coins and sets, and besides began restriking early issues. The restrikes of one-half cents were by and large struck from each year ’ s original obverse die and one or two extra rearward dies. The combination of obverse die and overrule die determines whether a while is considered an original, a first restrike or a second restrike .
For the 1844 Coronet half cents, the original would have been struck in 1844, with a first restrike produced circa 1856 to 1857 ( from a second overrule die ). A moment restrike ( from a one-third turn back die ) was struck erstwhile later .
The 1844 one-half penny in the auction, struck in 1858 or subsequently, is graded Proof 64 brown university PCGS Secure, with a degree of Proof 63 under the standards used by the club early american Coppers ( EAC uses different standards than the market grade standards used by most third-party grade services ). As described by Heritage, “ This desirable proof is sharply detail with olive and pale orange surfaces. The fields are moderately mirrored. ”
The final examination nibble is another individual issue, but of a mint fall by a disaffected politics in an fill federal Mint — the Scott restrike of the 1861 Confederate half dollar .
When the Southern states seceded following the election of Abraham Lincoln as president in 1860, three outgrowth Mints fell under department of state control and then under Confederate restraint — Dahlonega, Ga. ; Charlotte, N.C. ; and New Orleans, La. The confederate government ’ s economy did not support sustaining minting operations at the three facilities, and each was closed in 1861, though not before belittled quantities of coins were struck after they left federal control .
The Confederate government had ambitions, however, to issue a national neologism, and to that effect, four experimental half dollars were struck at the New Orleans Mint in 1861. The obverse of each bears a discrete Confederate design while the revoke is actually an 1861 Seated Liberty half dollar obverse ( for the purposes of this coin, the Seated Liberty side is broadly considered the turn back ) .
The universe of the 1861 Confederate half dollar was not known to the collector community until 1879, when the first published reports surfaced, attributed to Benjamin F. Taylor, the New Orleans Mint head coiner. Taylor had, not merely one of the four Confederate half dollars, but besides the Confederate die, both of which he sold to dealer Ebenezer Locke Mason. In flex, mint and cast dealer John Walter Scott purchased Taylor ’ second coin and the die from Mason .
Scott knew the benefits of good promotion and recognized the hard collector appetite for unusual coins. He decided to restrike the Confederate half dollar, using the original die and 500 actual 1861 Seated Liberty half dollars. Scott had the reverses of the half dollars planed off and used the Confederate die to produce the 500 private restrikes. He besides used the Confederate die to make store cards, matching it with a new die outlining the history of the master mint and besides promoting his firm .
The Heritage auction offers respective Scott restrikes of the 1861 Confederate half dollar, including one PCGS graded about Uncirculated 53 .
As Heritage compose, the action of planing away the overrule of the host 1861 half dollar for the restrike “ reasonably flattened the date side, as seen on the give restrike, ” adding about the offer case, “ The Confederate side is toned golden-brown and shows ignite clothing. The dated side has rich aquamarine patina and a few thin marks made by a curious finder. ”
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While the Scott restrikes typically sell for thousands of dollars, they are more low-cost than the originals. Of the four original Confederate half dollars, today two are in institutional collections and two are in private collections, both of which made their foremost auction appearances lone in the twenty-first century, each registering six-figure prices .
The Confederate die, by the way, disappeared from public view in the 1920s and its stream whereabouts are stranger .
Additional restrikes of versatile early coins appear in the FUN auction. Go here for more details .