London – Wikipedia

capital and largest city of England and the United Kingdom
This article is about the capital city of England and the United Kingdom. For early uses, see London ( disambiguation )
capital city in England

London is the capital and largest city of England and the United Kingdom, with a population of precisely over 9 million. [ 9 ] It stands on the River Thames in southeast England at the head of a 50-mile ( 80 kilometer ) estuary down to the North Sea, and has been a major liquidation for two millennium. [ 10 ] The City of London, its ancient core and fiscal center, was founded by the Romans as Londinium and retains boundaries close to its chivalric ones. [ note 1 ] [ 11 ] Since the nineteenth hundred, [ 12 ] the name “ London ” has besides referred to the city around this congress of racial equality, historically split between the counties of Middlesex, Essex, Surrey, Kent, and Hertfordshire, [ 13 ] which largely comprises Greater London, [ 14 ] governed by the Greater London Authority. [ note 2 ] [ 15 ] The City of Westminster, to the west of the City of London, has for centuries held the national government and parliament. As one of the worldly concern ‘s major ball-shaped cities, [ 16 ] London exerts a strong charm on its arts, entertainment, fashion, department of commerce and finance, education, health care, media, science and technology, tourism, and ecstasy and communications. [ 17 ] [ 18 ] Its GDP ( €801.66 billion in 2017 ) makes it the biggest urban economy in Europe, [ 19 ] and it is one of the major fiscal centres in the universe. As of 2021, London had the most millionaires of any city. [ 20 ] With Europe ‘s largest concentration of higher education institutions, [ 21 ] it includes Imperial College London in natural and apply sciences, the London School of Economics in social sciences, and the comprehensive examination University College London. [ 22 ] London has the busiest city airport organization in the world [ 23 ] and the London Underground is the oldest rapid passage arrangement in the universe. [ 24 ] London is one of the most-visited cities in the universe and is home to the most 5-star hotels of any city. [ 25 ] London ‘s divers cultures encompass over 300 languages. [ 26 ] The mid-2018 population of Greater London of about 9 million [ 5 ] made it Europe ‘s third-most populous city, [ 27 ] report for 13.4 % of the population of the United Kingdom [ 28 ] and over 16 % of the population of England. Greater London Built-up Area is the fourth-most populous in Europe, after Istanbul, Moscow and Paris, with about 9.8 million inhabitants at the 2011 census. [ 29 ] [ 30 ] The London metropolitan area is the third-most populous in Europe after Istanbul ‘s and Moscow ‘s, with about 14 million inhabitants in 2016, [ note 3 ] [ 4 ] [ 31 ] granting London the status of a megacity. London has four World Heritage Sites : the Tower of London ; Kew Gardens ; the compound Palace of Westminster, Westminster Abbey, and St Margaret ‘s Church ; and besides the historic settlement in Greenwich, where the Royal Observatory, Greenwich defines the Prime Meridian ( 0° longitude ) and Greenwich Mean Time. [ 32 ] early landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul ‘s Cathedral, Tower Bridge, and Trafalgar Square. It has many museums, galleries, libraries and cultural venues, including the british Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library, and numerous West end theatres. [ 33 ] Important annual sporting events held in London include the FA Cup Final ( held per annum at Wembley Stadium ), Wimbledon Tennis Championships and London Marathon. In 2012, London became the first city to host three Summer Olympic Games. [ 34 ]


London is an ancient identify, already attested in the first hundred AD, normally in the romanize kind Londinium ; [ 35 ] for exercise, handwritten Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70–80 include the word Londinio ( ‘in London ‘ ). [ 36 ] Over the years, the name has attracted many mythically based explanations. The earliest attest appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth ‘s Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. [ 35 ] [ 37 ] Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources : Latin ( normally Londinium ), Old English ( normally Lunden ), and Welsh ( normally Llundein ), with address to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed that the name came into these languages from Common Brythonic ; late work tends to reconstruct the bemused Celtic human body of the name as * Londonjon or something like. This was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English. [ 38 ] The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is debated. Prominent was Richard Coates ‘s 1998 argumentation that it derived from pre-Celtic Old European * (p)lowonida, meaning “ river besides across-the-board to ford ”. Coates suggested this was a name given to the share of the River Thames that flows through London, from which the colonization gained the celtic form of its name, * Lowonidonjon. [ 39 ] however, most work has accepted a plain celtic origin. recent studies favour an explanation of a Celtic derivative of a Proto-Indo-European ancestor * lendh- ( ‘sink, lawsuit to sink ‘ ), combined with the Celtic suffix * -injo- or * -onjo- ( used to form place-names ). Peter Schrijver has specifically suggested that the name in the first place meant “ locate that floods ( sporadically, tidally ) ”. [ 40 ] [ 38 ] Until 1889, the identify “ London ” applied officially only to the City of London, but since then it has besides referred to the County of London and to Greater London. [ 41 ] In writing, “ London ” is occasionally contracted to “ LDN ”. [ 42 ] [ 43 ] such usage originated in SMS language and often appears in a social media drug user profile, suffixing an alias or handle .


For a chronological guide, see Timeline of London


In 1993, remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore upriver from Vauxhall Bridge. [ 44 ] This either crossed the Thames or reached a now-lost island in it. Two of the timbers were radiocarbon dated to 1750–1285 BCE. [ 44 ] In 2010, foundations of a large forest structure, dated to 4800–4500 BCE, [ 45 ] were found on the Thames ‘s south foreshore downstream from Vauxhall Bridge. [ 46 ] The serve of the mesolithic age social organization is indecipherable. Both structures are on the south savings bank of the Thames, where the now-underground River Effra flows into the Thames. [ 46 ]

Roman London

Despite the evidence of disperse Brythonic settlements in the sphere, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years [ 2 ] after the invasion of 43 AD. [ 47 ] This only lasted until about 61 AD, when the Iceni kin led by Queen Boudica stormed it and burnt it to the ground. [ 48 ] The following plan embodiment of Londinium prospered, superseding Colchester as capital of the Roman state of Britannia in 100. At its altitude in the second hundred, Roman London had a population of about 60,000. [ 49 ]

Anglo-Saxon and Viking-period London

With the early 5th-century collapse of Roman rule, London ceased to be a capital and the wall city of Londinium was effectively abandoned, although Roman civilization continued around St Martin-in-the-Fields until about 450. [ 50 ] From about 500, an anglo-saxon colonization known as Lundenwic developed slenderly west of the honest-to-god Roman city. [ 51 ] By about 680 the city had become a major port again, but there is little evidence of large-scale production. From the 820s repeated Viking assaults brought worsen. Three are recorded ; those in 851 and 886 succeeded, while the final, in 994, was rebuffed. [ 52 ]
The lancastrian siege of London in 1471 is attacked by a Yorkist wisecrack. The Vikings applied Danelaw over much of easterly and northern England, its boundary run approximately from London to Chester as an area of political and geographic master imposed by the Viking incursions formally agreed by the Danish warlord, Guthrum and the West Saxon king Alfred the Great in 886. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that Alfred “ refounded ” London in 886. archaeological research shows this involve abandonment of Lundenwic and a revival of life and trade within the old Roman walls. London then grew slowly until a dramatic increase in about 950. [ 53 ] By the eleventh hundred, London was distinctly the largest township in England. Westminster Abbey, rebuild in Romanesque manner by King Edward the Confessor, was one of the grandest churches in Europe. Winchester had been the capital of Anglo-Saxon England, but from this time London became the main forum for foreign traders and the root for refutation in time of war. In the view of Frank Stenton : “ It had the resources, and it was quickly developing the dignity and the political self-consciousness appropriate to a national capital. ” [ 54 ] [ 55 ]

Middle Ages

After winning the Battle of Hastings, William, Duke of Normandy was crowned King of England in newly completed Westminster Abbey on Christmas Day 1066. [ 56 ] William built the Tower of London, the inaugural of many such in England rebuild in stone in the south-eastern corner of the city, to intimidate the inhabitants. [ 57 ] In 1097, William II began building Westminster Hall, near by the abbey of the same name. It became the basis of a new Palace of Westminster. [ 58 ] [ 59 ] In the twelfth century, the institutions of central government, which had so far followed the royal english court around the country, grew in size and sophistication and became increasingly fixed, for most purposes at Westminster, although the royal treasury, having been moved from Winchester, came to rest in the Tower. While the City of Westminster developed into a true governmental capital, its distinct neighbor, the City of London, remained England ‘s largest city and principal commercial kernel and flourished under its own unique presidency, the Corporation of London. In 1100, its population was some 18,000 ; by 1300 it had grown to closely 100,000. [ 60 ] Disaster strike in the form of the Black Death in the mid-14th century, when London lost about a third gear of its population. [ 61 ] London was the focus of the Peasants ‘ Revolt in 1381. [ 62 ] London was besides a center of England ‘s jewish population before their expulsion by Edward I in 1290. violence against Jews occurred in 1190, when it was rumoured that the new king had ordered their massacre after they had presented themselves at his coronation. [ 63 ] In 1264 during the second Barons ‘ War, Simon de Montfort ‘s rebels killed 500 Jews while attempting to seize records of debts. [ 64 ]

early modern

Map of London in 1593. There is only one bridge across the Thames, but parts of Southwark on the south bank of the river have been developed. During the Tudor period the Reformation produced a gradual stir to Protestantism. Much of London property passed from church to private possession, which accelerated deal and business in the city. [ 65 ] In 1475, the Hanseatic League set up a independent trade base ( kontor ) of England in London, called the Stalhof or Steelyard. It remained until 1853, when the Hanseatic cities of Lübeck, Bremen and Hamburg sold the property to South Eastern Railway. [ 66 ] Woollen fabric was shipped unbleached and unappareled from 14th/15th century London to the nearby shores of the Low Countries, where it was considered indispensable. [ 67 ] yet english maritime enterprise barely reached beyond the seas of northwest Europe. The commercial route to Italy and the Mediterranean was normally through Antwerp and over the Alps ; any ships passing through the Strait of Gibraltar to or from England were probably to be italian or Ragusan. The reopen of the Netherlands to English transport in January 1565 spurred a burst of commercial activity. [ 68 ] The Royal Exchange was founded. [ 69 ] Mercantilism grew and monopoly traders such as the East India Company were founded as trade expanded to the New World. London became the independent North Sea port, with migrants arriving from England and afield. The population rose from about 50,000 in 1530 to about 225,000 in 1605. [ 65 ] In the sixteenth century, William Shakespeare and his contemporaries lived in London during English Renaissance field. Shakespeare ‘s Globe Theatre was constructed in 1599 in Southwark. phase performances came to a freeze in London when Puritan authorities shut down the theatres in the 1640s and 1650s. [ 70 ] The prohibition on theater was lifted during the Restoration in 1660, and London ‘s oldest function dramaturgy, Drury Lane, opened in 1663 in what is now the West End field district. [ 71 ] By the conclusion of the Tudor period in 1603, London was even compress. There was an assassination attack on James I in Westminster, in the Gunpowder Plot of 5 November 1605. [ 72 ]
In 1637, the government of Charles I attempted to reform government in the London area. This called for the Corporation of the city to extend its jurisdiction and administration over expanding areas around the city. Fearing an attack by the Crown to diminish the Liberties of London, coupled with a miss of pastime in administering these extra areas or concern by city guilds of having to share might, caused the Corporation ‘s “ The Great Refusal ”, a decisiveness which largely continues to account for the singular governmental condition of the City. [ 73 ] In the English Civil War the majority of Londoners supported the Parliamentary cause. After an initial advance by the Royalists in 1642, culminating in the battles of Brentford and Turnham Green, London was surrounded by a defensive margin wall known as the Lines of Communication. The lines were built by up to 20,000 people, and were completed in under two months. [ 74 ] The fortifications failed their only test when the New Model Army entered London in 1647, [ 75 ] and they were levelled by Parliament the same year. [ 76 ] London was plagued by disease in the early seventeenth century, [ 77 ] culminate in the Great Plague of 1665–1666, which killed up to 100,000 people, or a fifth of the population. [ 78 ]
The Great Fire of London broke out in 1666 in Pudding Lane in the city and promptly swept through the wooden buildings. [ 79 ] Rebuilding took over ten years and was supervised by polymath Robert Hooke as surveyor for the City of London. [ 80 ] [ 81 ] [ 82 ] In 1708 Christopher Wren ‘s masterpiece, St Paul ‘s Cathedral, was completed. During the Georgian era, newly districts such as Mayfair were formed in the west ; new bridges over the Thames encouraged development in South London. In the east, the Port of London expanded downriver. London ‘s development as an external fiscal center matured for much of the eighteenth hundred. [ 83 ] In 1762, George III acquired Buckingham House, which was enlarged over the next 75 years. During the eighteenth hundred, London was said to be dogged by crime, [ 84 ] and the Bow Street Runners were established in 1750 as a professional police pull. [ 85 ] A sum of more than 200 offences were penal by death, [ 86 ] including junior-grade larceny. [ 87 ] Epidemics during the 1720s and 30s saw most children born in the city die before reaching their fifth birthday. [ 88 ] Coffee-houses became a democratic stead to debate ideas, as growing literacy and development of the print press made news widely available, with Fleet Street becoming the concentrate of the british weigh. The invasion of Amsterdam by Napoleonic armies led many financiers to relocate to London and the first London international write out was arranged in 1817. Around the same time, the Royal Navy became the world ‘s lead war fleet, acting as a major hindrance to potential economic adversaries. The revoke of the Corn Laws in 1846 was specifically aimed at weakening Dutch economic office. London then overtook Amsterdam as the leading international fiscal concentrate. [ 89 ] [ 90 ] According to Samuel Johnson :

You find no serviceman, at all intellectual, who is uncoerced to leave London. No, Sir, when a man is tired of London, he is tired of life ; for there is in London all that life can afford .Samuel Johnson, 1777[91]

belated modern and contemporaneous

With the attack of the Industrial Revolution in Britain, an unprecedented growth in urbanization took target, and the act of High Streets ( the primary street for retail in Britain ) quickly grew. [ 92 ] [ 93 ] London was the populace ‘s largest city from about 1831 to 1925, [ 94 ] with a population concentration of 325 per hectare. [ 95 ] In summation to the growing number of stores selling goods such as Harding, Howell & Co. on Pall Mall —a rival for the first department storehouse —the streets had scores of street sellers obstreperously advertising their goods and services. [ 92 ] London ‘s overcrowd conditions led to cholera epidemics, [ 96 ] claiming 14,000 lives in 1848, and 6,000 in 1866. [ 97 ] Rising traffic congestion led to the universe of the populace ‘s first local urban vilify network. The Metropolitan Board of Works oversaw infrastructure expansion in the das kapital and some smother counties ; it was abolished in 1889 when the London County Council was created out of county areas surrounding the capital. [ 98 ] From the early years of the twentieth century onwards, teashops were found on High Streets across London and the rest of Britain, with Lyons, who opened the first of their chain of teashops in Piccadilly in 1894, leading the room. [ 99 ] The tearooms, such as the Criterion in Piccadilly, became a popular meet place for women from the right to vote campaign. [ 100 ] The city was the target of many attacks during the suffragette bombard and arson political campaign, between 1912 and 1914, which saw historic landmarks such as Westminster Abbey and St Paul ‘s Cathedral fail. [ 101 ]
London was bombed by the Germans in the First World War, [ 102 ] and during the second World War, the Blitz and other bombings by the german Luftwaffe killed over 30,000 Londoners, destroying large tracts of house and other buildings across the city. [ 103 ] The 1948 Summer Olympics were held at the original Wembley Stadium, while London was however recovering from the war. [ 104 ] From the 1940s, London became home to many immigrants, chiefly from Commonwealth countries such as Jamaica, India, Bangladesh and Pakistan, [ 105 ] making London one of the most diverse cities in the populace. In 1951, the Festival of Britain was held on the South Bank. [ 106 ] The Great Smog of 1952 led to the Clean Air Act 1956, which ended the “ pea soup fogs “ for which London had been ill-famed. [ 107 ] Starting chiefly in the mid-1960s, London became a center for worldwide youth culture, exemplified by the Swinging London sub-culture [ 108 ] associated with the King ‘s Road, Chelsea [ 109 ] and Carnaby Street. [ 110 ] The character of trendsetter revived in the punk era. [ 111 ] In 1965 London ‘s political boundaries were expanded in answer to the growth of the urban area and a new Greater London Council was created. [ 112 ] During The Troubles in Northern Ireland, London was hit in 1973 to bomb attacks by the Provisional irish Republican Army, [ 113 ] for two decades, starting with the Old Bailey bombing. [ 114 ] [ 115 ] Racial inequality was highlighted by the 1981 Brixton rioting. [ 116 ] Greater London ‘s population declined in the decades after the irregular World War, from an estimated bill of 8.6 million in 1939 to around 6.8 million in the 1980s. [ 117 ] The star ports for London moved downriver to Felixstowe and Tilbury, with the London Docklands sphere becoming a focus for regeneration, including the Canary Wharf development. This was borne out of London ‘s increasing function as an international fiscal center in the 1980s. [ 118 ] The Thames Barrier was completed in the 1980s to protect London against tidal surges from the North Sea. [ 119 ] The Greater London Council was abolished in 1986, leaving London with no central administration until 2000 and the initiation of the Greater London Authority. [ 120 ] To mark the twenty-first century, the Millennium Dome, London Eye and Millennium Bridge were constructed. [ 121 ] On 6 July 2005 London was awarded the 2012 Summer Olympics, as the first base city to stage the Olympic Games three times. [ 122 ] On 7 July 2005, three London Underground trains and a bus bus were bombed in a series of terrorist attacks. [ 123 ] In 2008, Time named London alongside New York City and Hong Kong as Nylonkong, hailing them as the universe ‘s three most influential global cities. [ 124 ] In January 2015, Greater London ‘s population was estimated to be 8.63 million, its highest since 1939. [ 125 ] During the Brexit referendum in 2016, the UK as a whole decided to leave the European Union, but most London constituencies voted for remaining. [ 126 ]


local politics

The government of London is formed of two tiers : a citywide, strategic grade and a local tier. Citywide presidency is coordinated by the Greater London Authority ( GLA ), while local administration is carried out by 33 smaller authorities. [ 128 ] The GLA consists of two elective components : the mayor of London, who has executive powers, and the London Assembly, which scrutinises the mayor ‘s decisions and can accept or reject the mayor ‘s budget proposals each year. The headquarters of the GLA is City Hall, Newham. The mayor since 2016 has been Sadiq Khan, the first Muslim mayor of a major westerly capital. [ 129 ] [ 130 ] The mayor ‘s statutory plan scheme is published as the London Plan, which was most recently revised in 2011. [ 131 ] The local authorities are the councils of the 32 London boroughs and the City of London Corporation. [ 132 ] They are creditworthy for most local services, such as local anesthetic plan, schools, social services, local roads and refuse collection. Certain functions, such as waste management, are provided through joint arrangements. In 2009–2010 the combined tax income consumption by London councils and the GLA amounted to just over £22 billion ( £14.7 billion for the boroughs and £7.4 billion for the GLA ). [ 133 ] The London Fire Brigade is the statutory fire and rescue service for Greater London, run by the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. It is the third largest fire service in the global. [ 134 ] National Health Service ambulance services are provided by the London Ambulance Service ( LAS ) NHS Trust, the largest free-at-the-point-of-use emergency ambulance servicing in the world. [ 135 ] The London Air Ambulance charity operates in junction with the LAS where required. Her Majesty ‘s Coastguard and the Royal National Lifeboat Institution engage on the River Thames, [ 136 ] [ 137 ] which is under the legal power of the Port of London Authority from Teddington Lock to the sea. [ 138 ]

National government

London is the seat of the Government of the United Kingdom. many government departments, ampere well as the flower minister ‘s mansion at 10 Downing Street, are based close to the Palace of Westminster, peculiarly along Whitehall. [ 139 ] There are 73 members of Parliament ( MPs ) from London, elected from local parliamentary constituencies in the national Parliament. As of December 2019, 49 are from the Labour Party, 21 are Conservatives, and three are liberal Democrat. [ 140 ] The ministerial post of minister for London was created in 1994. The stream Minister for London is Paul Scully MP. [ 141 ]

Policing and crime

Policing in Greater London, with the exception of the City of London, is provided by the Metropolitan Police, oversee by the mayor through the Mayor ‘s position for Policing and Crime ( MOPAC ). [ 142 ] [ 143 ] The City of London has its own police force – the City of London Police. [ 144 ] The british Transport Police are responsible for police services on National Rail, London Underground, Docklands Light Railway and Tramlink services. [ 145 ] The Ministry of Defence Police is a extra police force in London, which does not broadly become involved with policing the cosmopolitan public. [ 146 ] crime rates vary wide across unlike areas of London. Crime figures are made available nationally at Local Authority and Ward degree. [ 147 ] In 2015, there were 118 homicides, a 25.5 % addition over 2014. [ 148 ] The Metropolitan Police have made detailed crime figures, broken down by class at borough and ward level, available on their web site since 2000. [ 149 ] [ 150 ] Recorded crime has been rising in London, notably crimson crime and mangle by stabbing and other means have risen. There were 50 murders from the depart of 2018 to mid April 2018. Funding cuts to police in London are likely to have contributed to this, though other factors are besides involved. [ 151 ]



Satellite view of London in June 2018 London, besides known as Greater London, is one of nine regions of England and the top subsection covering most of the city ‘s city. [ note 4 ] The City of London at its core once comprised the whole village, but as its urban area grew, the Corporation of London resisted attempts to amalgamate the City with its suburbs, causing “ London ” to be defined several ways. [ 152 ] Forty per cent of Greater London is covered by the London post town, in which ‘LONDON ‘ forms separate of postal addresses. [ 153 ] [ 154 ] The London telephone area code ( 020 ) covers a larger area, like in size to Greater London, although some out districts are excluded and some just outside included. The Greater London boundary has been aligned to the M25 expressway in places. [ 155 ] far urban expansion is now prevented by the Metropolitan Green Belt, [ 156 ] although the built-up area extends beyond the limit in places, producing a individually defined Greater London Urban Area. beyond this is the huge London commuter knock. [ 157 ] Greater London is split for some purposes into Inner London and Outer London, [ 158 ] and by the River Thames into North and South, with an informal cardinal London sphere. The coordinates of the nominal center of London, traditionally the original Eleanor Cross at Charing Cross near the junction of Trafalgar Square and Whitehall, are about. [ 159 ] however, the geographic kernel of London on one definition is in the London Borough of Lambeth, 0.1 miles to the northeast of Lambeth North tube place. [ 160 ]


Within London, both the City of London and the City of Westminster have city status and both the City of London and the end of Greater London are counties for the purposes of lieutenancies. [ 161 ] The area of Greater London includes areas that are part of the historic counties of Middlesex, Kent, Surrey, Essex and Hertfordshire. [ 162 ] London ‘s status as the capital of England, and late the United Kingdom, has never been granted or confirmed officially—by codified or in written form. [ notice 5 ] Its position was formed through constituent convention, making its condition as de facto capital a character of the UK ‘s uncodified fundamental law. The capital of England was moved to London from Winchester as the Palace of Westminster developed in the 12th and 13th centuries to become the permanent placement of the royal court, and thus the political capital of the nation. [ 166 ] More recently, Greater London has been defined as a area of England and in this context is known as London. [ 167 ]


Greater London encompasses a total sphere of 611 square miles ( 1,583 km2 ) an area which had a population of 7,172,036 in 2001 and a population concentration of 11,760 inhabitants per square nautical mile ( 4,542/km2 ). The extend area known as the London Metropolitan Region or the London Metropolitan Agglomeration, comprises a entire area of 3,236 public square miles ( 8,382 km2 ) has a population of 13,709,000 and a population density of 3,900 inhabitants per square mile ( 1,510/km2 ). [ 168 ] modern London stands on the Thames, its basal geographic feature of speech, a navigable river which crosses the city from the southwest to the east. The Thames Valley is a flood obviously surrounded by lightly rolling hills including Parliament Hill, Addington Hills, and Primrose Hill. Historically London grew up at the lowest bridge point on the Thames. The Thames was once a much broader, shallower river with extensive marshlands ; at high tide, its shores reached five times their introduce width. [ 169 ] Since the Victorian era the Thames has been extensively embanked, and many of its London tributaries now flow belowground. The Thames is a tidal river, and London is vulnerable to flooding. [ 170 ] The menace has increased over time because of a slow but continuous rise in senior high school body of water level caused by climate change and by the slow ’tilting ‘ of the british Isles ( up in Scotland and Northern Ireland and down in southerly parts of England, Wales and Ireland ) as a result of post-glacial recoil. [ 171 ] [ 172 ] In 1974 a decade of make began on the construction of the Thames Barrier across the Thames at Woolwich to deal with this threat. While the barrier is expected to function as designed until approximately 2070, concepts for its future enlargement or redesign are already being discussed. [ 173 ] London has had a humble numeral of earthquakes over the years. notably, those of 1750, which macroseismic information dictates were clearly epicentered directly under the city. In 2018, two active faults were discovered running parallel to each early, immediately under the center of the city. [ 174 ] Furthermore, the city has been damaged at least twice ( including fatalites ) in the earthquakes of 1382 and 1580. Those earthquakes being epicentred under the English Channel. [ 175 ] London ‘s build code is being redrawn sol that every new structure must be able to withstand an earthquake of at least 6.5 on the richter scale. [ 176 ]


London, England
Climate chart (explanation)
joule degree fahrenheit thousand A molarity joule joule A mho o normality five hundred





































Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm

London has a temperate oceanic climate ( Köppen : Cfb ). rain records have been kept in the city since at least 1697, when records began at Kew. At Kew, the most rain in one month is 7.4 inches ( 189 millimeter ) in November 1755 and the least is 0 inches ( 0 millimeter ) in both December 1788 and July 1800. Mile End besides had 0 inches ( 0 millimeter ) in April 1893. [ 177 ] The wettest year on commemorate is 1903, with a sum fall of 38.1 inches ( 969 millimeter ) and the dry is 1921, with a total capitulation of 12.1 inches ( 308 millimeter ). [ 178 ] The average annual precipitation amounts to about 600 mm, which is half the annual rain of New York City, but besides lower than Rome, Lisbon, and Sydney, Australia. [ 179 ] [ 180 ] [ 181 ] Despite its relatively first gear annual precipitation, London placid receives 109.6 showery days on the 1.0 millimeter threshold annually. however, London is vulnerable to climate variety in the United Kingdom, and there is increasing concern among hydrological experts that London households may run out of urine before 2050. [ 182 ] temperature extremes in London range from 40.2 °C ( 104.4 °F ) at Heathrow on 19 July 2022 down to −16.1 °C ( 3.0 °F ) at Northolt on 1 January 1962. [ 183 ] [ 184 ] Records for atmospheric blackmail have been kept at London since 1692. The highest pressure ever reported is 1,049.8 millibars ( 31.00 inHg ) on 20 January 2020. [ 185 ] Summers are broadly warm, sometimes hot. London ‘s average July high is 23.5 °C ( 74.3 °F ). On average each year, London experiences 31 days above 25 °C ( 77.0 °F ) and 4.2 days above 30.0 °C ( 86.0 °F ). During the 2003 european heating system wave prolonged heat led to hundreds of heat-related deaths. [ 186 ] There was besides a former while of 15 consecutive days above 32.2 °C ( 90.0 °F ) in England in 1976 which besides caused many heat relate deaths. [ 187 ] A previous temperature of 37.8 °C ( 100.0 °F ) in August 1911 at the Greenwich post was late disregarded as non-standard. [ 188 ] Droughts can besides, occasionally, be a trouble, particularly in summer, most recently in summer 2018, [ 189 ] and with much drier than average conditions prevailing from May to December. [ 190 ] however, the most consecutive days without rain was 73 days in the leap of 1893. [ 191 ] Winters are broadly cool with little temperature version. Heavy coke is rare but snow normally falls at least once each winter. spring and fall can be pleasant. As a large city, London has a considerable urban heating system island effect, [ 192 ] making the center of London at times 5 °C ( 9 °F ) warmer than the suburb and outskirts. This can be seen below when comparing London Heathrow, 15 miles ( 24 kilometer ) west of London, with the London Weather Centre. [ 193 ]

  1. ^ Averages are taken from Heathrow, and extremes are taken from stations across London .
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.4
Average high °C (°F) 8.5
Daily mean °C (°F) 5.9
Average low °C (°F) 3.4
Record low °C (°F) −9.4
Average precipitation mm (inches) 43.9
Average precipitation days ( ≥ 1.0 millimeter ) 10.5 9.2 7.9 8.1 7.9 7.8 7.1 8.2 7.9 10.3 10.6 10.2 105.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours 44.4 66.1 109.7 152.9 198.7 198.6 209.2 198.0 140.6 99.7 58.5 50.1 1,526.4
Source 1: Met Office[203][204][205]
Source 2: BBC Weather[206]


Places within London ‘s huge urban area are identified using zone names, such as Mayfair, Southwark, Wembley and Whitechapel. These are either cozy designations, reflect the names of villages that have been absorbed by sprawl, or are superseded administrative units such as parishes or former boroughs. such names have remained in use through custom, each referring to a local area with its own distinctive character, but without official boundaries. Since 1965 Greater London has been divided into 32 London boroughs in addition to the ancient City of London. [ 207 ] [ 208 ] The City of London is the main fiscal district, [ 209 ] and Canary Wharf has recently developed into a new fiscal and commercial hub in the Docklands to the east .
The West end is London ‘s independent entertainment and shopping zone, attracting tourists. [ 210 ] West London includes expensive residential areas where properties can sell for tens of millions of pounds. [ 211 ] The modal price for properties in Kensington and Chelsea is over £2 million with a similarly high outgo in most of central London. [ 212 ] [ 213 ] The East conclusion is the area close to the original Port of London, known for its high immigrant population, ampere well as for being one of the poorest areas in London. [ 214 ] The surrounding East London area saw a lot of London ‘s early industrial development ; nowadays, brownfield sites throughout the area are being redeveloped as part of the Thames Gateway including the London Riverside and Lower Lea Valley, which was developed into the Olympic Park for the 2012 Olympics and Paralympics. [ 214 ]


London ‘s buildings are excessively divers to be characterised by any particular architectural dash, partially because of their change ages. many fantastic houses and public buildings, such as the National Gallery, are constructed from Portland gem. Some areas of the city, peculiarly those barely west of the center, are characterised by white stucco or whitewashed buildings. few structures in central London pre-date the Great Fire of 1666, these being a few hound Roman remains, the Tower of London and a few disperse Tudor survivors in the city. Further out is, for example, the Tudor-period Hampton Court Palace, England ‘s oldest surviving Tudor palace, built by Cardinal Thomas Wolsey in approximately 1515. [ 215 ]
The east wing public façade of Buckingham Palace was built between 1847 and 1850 ; it was remodelled to its introduce shape in 1913. region of the change architectural heritage are the 17th-century churches by Wren, neoclassic fiscal institutions such as the Royal Exchange and the Bank of England, to the early twentieth century Old Bailey and the 1960s barbican Estate. The 1939 Battersea Power Station by the river in the southwest is a local landmark, while some railway termini are excellent examples of victorian architecture, most notably St. Pancras and Paddington. [ 216 ] The density of London varies, with high gear employment concentration in the central area and Canary Wharf, high residential densities in inside London, and lower densities in Outer London .
The Monument in the City of London provides views of the surrounding area while commemorating the Great Fire of London, which originated nearby. marble Arch and Wellington Arch, at the north and confederacy ends of Park Lane, respectively, have royal connections, as do the Albert Memorial and Royal Albert Hall in Kensington. Nelson ‘s Column ( built to commemorate Admiral Horatio Nelson ) is a nationally recognize monument in Trafalgar Square, one of the focal points of central London. Older buildings are chiefly brick built, most normally the yellow London stock brick or a strong orange-red variety, much decorated with carvings and blank poultice mouldings. [ 217 ]
In the dense areas, most of the concentration is via medium- and high-rise buildings. London ‘s skyscrapers, such as 30 St Mary Axe, Tower 42, the Broadgate Tower and One Canada Square, are largely in the two fiscal districts, the City of London and Canary Wharf. High-rise development is restricted at certain sites if it would obstruct protect views of St Paul ‘s Cathedral and other historic buildings. [ 218 ] This protective policy, known as ‘St Paul ’ s Heights ‘, has been in operation by the City of London since 1937. [ 219 ] Nevertheless, there are a count of improbable skyscrapers in central London ( see Tall buildings in London ), including the 95-storey Shard London Bridge, the tallest build in the United Kingdom. other luminary modern buildings include The Scalpel, in the first place a nickname coined by the Financial Times due to its distinctive angular design but subsequently designated as its official name, [ 220 ] 20 Fenchurch Street, dubbed “ The walkie-talkie ” because of its classifiable shape that resembles a two-way radio handset, [ 221 ] the early City Hall in Southwark with its classifiable ellipse determine, [ 222 ] the Art Deco BBC Broadcasting House plus the Postmodernist British Library in Somers Town / Kings Cross and No 1 Poultry by James Stirling. What was once the Millennium Dome, by the Thames to the east of Canary Wharf, is now an entertainment venue called the O2 Arena. [ 223 ]


natural history

The London Natural History Society suggests that London is “ one of the World ‘s Greenest Cities ” with more than 40 per cent green space or open body of water. They indicate that 2000 species of flowering plant have been found growing there and that the tidal Thames supports 120 species of pisces. [ 224 ] They besides state of matter that over 60 species of bird nest in cardinal London and that their members have recorded 47 species of butterfly, 1173 moths and more than 270 kinds of spider around London. London ‘s wetland areas support nationally important populations of many water birds. London has 38 Sites of particular Scientific Interest ( SSSIs ), two national nature reserves and 76 local anesthetic nature reserves. [ 225 ] Amphibians are common in the capital, including smooth newt survive by the Tate Modern, and common frogs, common toads, palmate newts and great cap newt. On the other hand, native reptiles such as slowworms, common lizards, barred grass snakes and adders, are largely only seen in Outer London. [ 226 ]
Among other inhabitants of London are 10,000 crimson foxes, so that there are now 16 foxes for every square mile ( 6 per square kilometer ) of London. These urban foxes are perceptibly bolder than their country cousins, sharing the pavement with pedestrians and raising cubs in people ‘s backyards. Foxes have even sneaked into the Houses of Parliament, where one was found asleep on a file cabinet. Another broke into the grounds of Buckingham Palace, reportedly killing some of Queen Elizabeth II ‘s pry pink flamingo. [ 227 ] Generally, however, foxes and city tribe appear to get along. A review in 2001 by the London-based Mammal Society found that 80 per cent of 3,779 respondents who volunteered to keep a diary of garden mammal visits liked having them about. This sample can not be taken to represent Londoners as a unharmed. [ 228 ] [ 229 ] other mammals found in Greater London are hedgehog, brown rat, shiner, rabbit, shrew, vole, and grey squirrel. [ 230 ] In wild areas of Outer London, such as Epping Forest, a wide variety of mammals are found, including european hare, wisconsinite, field, bank and water vole, forest mouse, yellow-necked mouse, mole, shrew, and weasel, in addition to red fox, grey squirrel and porcupine. A dead otter was found at The Highway, in Wapping, about a mile from the Tower Bridge, which would suggest that they have begun to move back after being absent a hundred years from the city. [ 231 ] Ten of England ‘s eighteen species of bats have been recorded in Epping Forest : soprano, Nathusius ‘ and park pipistrelles, common noctule, serotine, barbastelle, Daubenton ‘s, brown university long-eared, Natterer ‘s and Leisler ‘s. [ 232 ] Among the strange sights in London have been a whale in the Thames, [ 233 ] while the BBC Two program Natural World: Unnatural History of London shows feral pigeons using the London Underground to get around the city, a seal that takes fish from fishmongers external Billingsgate Fish Market, and foxes that will “ sit ” if given sausages. [ 234 ] Herds of red and fallow deer besides roam freely within much of Richmond and Bushy Park. A cull takes place each November and February to ensure numbers can be sustained. [ 235 ] Epping Forest is besides known for its fallow deer, which can frequently be seen in herds to the union of the Forest. A rare population of melanistic, black fallow deer is besides maintained at the Deer Sanctuary near Theydon Bois. Muntjac deer, which escaped from deer parks at the turn of the twentieth century, are besides found in the forest. While Londoners are accustomed to wildlife such as birds and foxes sharing the city, more recently urban deer have started becoming a regular sport, and hale herds of fallow deer come into residential areas at night to take advantage of London ‘s fleeceable spaces. [ 236 ] [ 237 ]


Population density map The 2011 census recorded that 2,998,264 people or 36.7 % of London ‘s population were foreign-born making it the city with the second base largest immigrant population after New York, in terms of absolute numbers. About 69 % of children born in London in 2015 had at least one parent who was born afield. [ 239 ] The table to the right shows the coarse countries of parentage of London residents. note that some of the German-born population, in 18th position, are british citizens from birth born to parents serving in the british Armed Forces in Germany. [ 240 ] Increasing industrialization swelled London ‘s population throughout the 19th and early twentieth centuries, and for some time in the late 19th and early twentieth centuries it was the most populous city in the world. It peaked at 8,615,245 in 1939, precisely before the outbreak of the Second World War, but had declined to 7,192,091 by the 2001 Census. however, the population then grew by precisely over a million between the 2001 and 2011 Censuses, to reach 8,173,941 in the latter. [ 241 ] however, London ‘s continuous urban area extends beyond Greater London and numbered 9,787,426 people in 2011, [ 30 ] while its wide metropolitan sphere had a population of 12–14 million, depending on the definition used. [ 242 ] [ 243 ] According to Eurostat, London is the moment most populous metropolitan sphere in Europe. A net 726,000 immigrants arrived there in the period 1991–2001. [ 244 ] The area covers 610 square miles ( 1,579 km2 ), giving a population concentration of 13,410 inhabitants per feather mile ( 5,177/km2 ) [ 245 ] more than ten times that of any other british region. [ 246 ] In population terms, London is the 19th largest city and the 18th largest metropolitan region. [ 247 ] [ 248 ]

Age structure and median age

Children younger than 14 constituted 20.6 % of the population in Outer London in 2018, and 18 % in Inner London. The 15–24 old age group was 11.1 % in Outer and 10.2 % in Inner London, those aged 25–44 years 30.6 % in Outer London and 39.7 % in Inner London, those aged 45–64 years 24 % and 20.7 % in Outer and Inner London respectively. Those aged 65 and over are 13.6 % in Outer London, but only 9.3 % in Inner London. [ 249 ] The median age of London in 2018 was 36.5, which was younger than the UK medial of 40.3. [ 249 ]

heathen groups

Maps of Greater London showing percentage distribution of selected ethnic groups according to the 2011 CensusWhite WhiteAsian asianBlack black According to the Office for National Statistics, based on 2011 Census estimates, 59.8 per penny of the 8,173,941 inhabitants of London were White, with 44.9 % White British, 2.2 % White Irish, 0.1 % romany / Irish traveler and 12.1 % classified as early White. [ 250 ] meanwhile 20.9 % of Londoners were of asian and mixed-Asian descent, 19.7 % being of wide asian descents and those of mixed-Asian inheritance 1.2 % of the population. Indians accounted for 6.6 %, followed by Pakistanis and Bangladeshis at 2.7 % each. taiwanese peoples accounted for 1.5 % and Arabs for 1.3 %. A far 4.9 % were classified as “ early asian ”. [ 250 ] 15.6 % of London ‘s population were of Black and mixed-Black descent. 13.3 % of full Black descent, with mixed-Black inheritance comprising 2.3 %. Black Africans accounted for 7.0 % of London ‘s population, with 4.2 % as Black Caribbean and 2.1 % as “ other Black ”. 5.0 % were of mix race. [ 250 ] The history of african presence in London extends back to the Roman period. [ 251 ] As of 2007, one fifth of primary school across London were from ethnic minorities. [ 252 ] Altogether at the 2011 census, of London ‘s 1,624,768 population aged 0 to 15, 46.4 % were White, 19.8 % asian, 19 % Black, 10.8 % Mixed and 4 % another ethnic group. [ 253 ] In January 2005, a sketch of London ‘s cultural and religious diversity claimed that more than 300 languages were spoken in London and more than 50 non-indigenous communities had populations of more than 10,000. [ 254 ] Figures from the Office for National Statistics show that in 2010, London ‘s foreign-born population was 2,650,000 ( 33 % ), up from 1,630,000 in 1997. The 2011 census showed that 36.7 % of Greater London ‘s population were born outside the UK. [ 255 ] Some of the German-born population were likely to be british nationals born to parents serving in the british Armed Forces in Germany. [ 256 ] Estimates by the Office for National Statistics indicate that the five largest foreign-born groups living in London in the menstruation July 2009 to June 2010 were born in India, Poland, the Republic of Ireland, Bangladesh and Nigeria. [ 257 ]


According to the 2011 Census, the largest religious groupings were Christians ( 48.4 % ), followed by those of no religion ( 20.7 % ), Muslims ( 12.4 % ), no response ( 8.5 % ), Hindus ( 5.0 % ), Jews ( 1.8 % ), Sikhs ( 1.5 % ), Buddhists ( 1.0 % ) and other ( 0.6 % ). [ 258 ] London has traditionally been Christian, and has a big issue of churches, particularly in the City of London. The long-familiar St Paul ‘s Cathedral in the City and Southwark Cathedral confederacy of the river are anglican administrative centres, [ 259 ] while the Archbishop of Canterbury, principal bishop of the Church of England and cosmopolitan Anglican Communion, has his main residence at Lambeth Palace in the London Borough of Lambeth. [ 260 ]
Important national and royal ceremonies are shared between St Paul ‘s and Westminster Abbey. [ 261 ] The Abbey is not to be confused with nearby Westminster Cathedral, which is the largest Roman Catholic cathedral in England and Wales. [ 262 ] Despite the prevalence of Anglican churches, honoring is low within the appellation. Church attendance continues a long, firm decline, according to Church of England statistics. [ 263 ] noteworthy mosques include the East London Mosque in Tower Hamlets, which is allowed to give the Islamic call to prayer through loudspeakers, the London Central Mosque on the edge of Regent ‘s Park [ 264 ] and the Baitul Futuh of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community. After the oil boom, increasing numbers of affluent Middle-Eastern Arab Muslims based themselves around Mayfair, Kensington and Knightsbridge in West London. [ 265 ] [ 266 ] [ 267 ] There are large Bengali Muslim communities in the eastern borough of Tower Hamlets and Newham. [ 268 ] bombastic Hindu communities are found in the north-western boroughs of Harrow and Brent, the latter hosting what was until 2006, [ 269 ] Europe ‘s largest Hindu temple, Neasden Temple. [ 270 ] London is besides home to 44 Hindu temples, including the BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir London. There are Sikh communities in East and West London, peculiarly in Southall, home to one of the largest sikh populations and the largest Sikh synagogue outside India. [ 271 ] The majority of british Jews live in London, with noteworthy jewish communities in Stamford Hill, Stanmore, Golders Green, Finchley, Hampstead, Hendon and Edgware in North London. Bevis Marks Synagogue in the City of London is affiliated to London ‘s historic Sephardic Jewish community. It is the lone synagogue in Europe to have held regular services continually for over 300 years. Stanmore and Canons Park Synagogue has the largest membership of any Orthodox synagogue in Europe, overtaking Ilford synagogue ( besides in London ) in 1998. [ 272 ] The London Jewish Forum was set up in 2006 in response to the growing significance of fall London Government. [ 273 ]


Cockney is an accent hear across London, chiefly spoken by wage-earning and lower-middle class Londoners. It is chiefly attributed to the East End and wider East London, having originated there in the eighteenth hundred, although it has been suggested that the Cockney expressive style of speech is much older. [ 274 ] Some features of Cockney include, Th -fronting ( pronouncing “ thorium ” as “ f ” ), model, “ some fings in life are badly ” ( heard in open of “ Always Look on the Bright Side of Life “ in Monty Python ‘s Life of Brian ), “ thursday ” inside a password is pronounced with a “ vanadium ” ( brother becomes brovva ), H -dropping, model ‘Ampshire for Hampshire ( as Eliza Doolittle said in My Fair Lady ), and, like most english accents, a Cockney emphasis drops the “ r ” after a vowel, for case, “ car ” is pronounced “ cah ”. [ 275 ] John Camden Hotten, in his Slang Dictionary of 1859, makes address to Cockney “ manipulation of a peculiar slang language ” ( Cockney rhyming slang ) when describing the costermongers of the East End. Examples include : using the news “ treacle ” to mean sweetheart ( rhymes with Treacle tart ), and “ porkies ” to mean lies ( rhymes with Pork pies ). [ 276 ] Since the get down of the twenty-first hundred the Cockney dialect is less common in parts of the East End itself, with modern strongholds including other parts of London and suburbs in the home counties. [ 277 ] [ 278 ] estuary English is an intermediate dialect between Cockney and Received Pronunciation. [ 279 ] It is widely spoken by people of all classes in London and south-eastern England, associated with the River Thames and its estuary. [ 280 ] Multicultural London English ( MLE ) is a multiethnolect becoming increasingly coarse in multicultural areas amongst young, wage-earning people from divers backgrounds. It is a fusion of an array of heathen accents, in particular Afro-Caribbean and South Asian, with a significant Cockney influence. [ 281 ] Received Pronunciation ( RP ) is the accent traditionally regarded as the standard for british English. [ 282 ] It has no particular geographic correlate, [ 283 ] although it is besides traditionally defined as the criterion address used in London and south-eastern England. [ 284 ] It is chiefly spoken by upper-class and upper-middle course Londoners. [ 285 ] [ 286 ]


[287] The City of London, one of the largest fiscal centres in the global London ‘s gross regional merchandise in 2019 was £503 billion, around a quarter of UK GDP. [ 288 ] London has five major business districts : the city, Westminster, Canary Wharf, Camden & Islington and Lambeth & Southwark. One way to get an idea of their relative importance is to look at relative amounts of office outer space : Greater London had 27 million m2 of agency space in 2001, and the City contains the most space, with 8 million m2 of office space. London has some of the highest substantial estate prices in the world. [ 289 ] [ 290 ] London is the world ‘s most expensive office market according to worldly concern property daybook ( 2015 ) reputation. [ 291 ] As of 2015 the residential property in London is worth $ 2.2 trillion – the lapp value as that of Brazil ‘s annual GDP. [ 292 ] The city has the highest property prices of any european city according to the Office for National Statistics and the European Office of Statistics. [ 293 ] On average the price per square meter in cardinal London is €24,252 ( April 2014 ). This is higher than the place prices in other G8 European das kapital cities ; Berlin €3,306, Rome €6,188 and Paris €11,229. [ 294 ]

The City of London

London ‘s finance diligence is based in the City of London and Canary Wharf, the two major business districts in London. London is one of the pre-eminent fiscal centres of the global as the most crucial location for external finance. [ 295 ] [ 296 ] London took over as a major fiscal kernel shortly after 1795 when the Dutch Republic collapsed before the Napoleonic armies. For many bankers established in Amsterdam ( e.g. Hope, Baring ), this was alone time to move to London. besides, London ‘s market-centred system ( as opposed to the bank-centred one in Amsterdam ) grew more dominant in the eighteenth hundred. [ 83 ] The London fiscal elect was strengthened by a potent Jewish community from all over Europe able of mastering the most advanced fiscal tools of the fourth dimension. [ 89 ] This singular concentration of talents accelerated the transition from the commercial Revolution to the Industrial Revolution. Writing about capitalism and the utility of diverseness in his reserve on English society, french philosopher Voltaire expounded upon why England at that time was more booming in comparison to the area ‘s less scrupulously kind european neighbours :

Take a view of the Royal Exchange in London, a home more venerable than many courts of department of justice, where the representatives of all nations meet for the profit of world. There the Jew, the Mahometan [ Muslim ], and the Christian transact together, as though they all professed the same religion, and give the identify of heathen to none but bankrupts. There the Presbyterian confides in the Anabaptist, and the Churchman depends on the Quaker ‘s parole. If one religion lone were allowed in England, the Government would identical possibly become arbitrary ; if there were but two, the people would cut one another ‘s throats ; but as there are such a battalion, they all live happy and in peace .Voltaire in Letters on the English, 1733.[297]

The Bank of England, established in 1694, is the mannequin on which most modern cardinal banks are based. By the mid-19th century, London was the leading fiscal center, and at the end of the hundred over half the world ‘s trade was financed in british currentness. [ 298 ] still, as of 2016 London tops the populace rankings on the Global Financial Centres Index ( GFCI ), [ 299 ] and it ranked second in A.T. Kearney ‘s 2018 Global Cities Index. [ 300 ] London ‘s largest industry is finance, and its fiscal exports make it a big subscriber to the UK ‘s balance of payments. Around 325,000 people were employed in fiscal services in London until mid-2007. London has over 480 oversea banks, more than any other city in the earth. It is besides the universe ‘s biggest currency trade centre, accountancy for some 37 per cent of the $ 5.1 trillion average casual volume, according to the BIS. [ 301 ] Over 85 per cent ( 3.2 million ) of the use population of greater London works in the services industries. Because of its big ball-shaped function, London ‘s economy had been affected by the fiscal crisis of 2007–2008. however, by 2010 the city had recovered, put in place new regulative powers, proceeded to regain lost crunch and re-established London ‘s economic authority. [ 302 ] Along with professional services headquarters, the City of London is home to the Bank of England, London Stock Exchange, and Lloyd ‘s of London insurance market. [ 303 ] Over half the UK ‘s clear 100 listed companies ( the FTSE 100 ) and over 100 of Europe ‘s 500 largest companies have their headquarters in central London. Over 70 per penny of the FTSE 100 are within London ‘s metropolitan sphere, and 75 per cent of Fortune 500 companies have offices in London. [ 304 ] In a 1992 report commissioned by the London Stock Exchange, Sir Adrian Cadbury, chair of his kin ‘s confectionery company Cadbury, produced the Cadbury Report, a code of best practice which served as a basis for reform of bodied government around the world. [ 305 ]

Media and engineering

Media companies are concentrated in London, and the media distribution industry is London ‘s second most competitive sector. [ 306 ] The BBC is a meaning employer, while early broadcasters besides have headquarters around the city. many national newspapers are edited in London ; the term Fleet Street ( where most national newspapers operated ) remains a metonym for the british national press. London is a major retail center and in 2010 had the highest non-food retail sales of any city in the global, with a entire spend of around £64.2 billion. [ 307 ] The Port of London is the second largest in the UK, handling 45 million tonnes of cargo each year. [ 308 ] A growing number of engineering companies are based in London, notably in East London Tech City, besides known as Silicon Roundabout. In 2014 the city was among the first to receive a geoTLD. [ 309 ] [ 310 ] [ 311 ] In February 2014 London was ranked as the European City of the Future [ 312 ] in the 2014/15 list by fDi Intelligence. [ 313 ] Computer skill pioneer Alan Turing hails from Maida Vale, west London. A museum in Bletchley Park, where Turing was based during World War II, is located in Bletchley, 40 miles ( 64 kilometer ) north of central London, as is The National Museum of Computing. [ 314 ] [ 315 ] The accelerator and electricity distribution networks that cope and operate the towers, cables and atmospheric pressure systems that deliver energy to consumers across the city are managed by National Grid plc, SGN [ 316 ] and UK Power Networks. [ 317 ]


London is one of the leading tourist destinations in the earth and in 2015 was ranked as the most visit city in the world with over 65 million visits. [ 318 ] [ 319 ] It is besides the top city in the global by visitor cross-border spend, estimated at US $ 20.23 billion in 2015. [ 320 ] Tourism is one of London ‘s prime industries, employing 700,000 full-time workers in 2016, and contributes £36 billion a year to the economy. [ 321 ] The city accounts for 54 % of all inbound visitor outgo in the UK. [ 322 ] As of 2016 London was the universe crown city address as ranked by TripAdvisor users. [ 323 ] In 2015 the peak most-visited attractions in the UK were all in London. The top 10 most travel to attractions were : ( with visits per venue ) [ 324 ]
The number of hotel rooms in London in 2015 stand at 138,769, and is expected to grow over the years. [ 325 ]


[326] Journeys in Greater London by mood from 1997 to 2018 tape drive is one of the four main areas of policy administered by the Mayor of London, [ 327 ] but the mayor ‘s fiscal control does not extend to the longer-distance rail network that enters London. In 2007 the Mayor of London assumed responsibility for some local lines, which now form the London Overground network, adding to the existing responsibility for the London Underground, trams and buses. The public transportation network is administered by Transport for London ( TfL ). [ 328 ] The lines that formed the London Underground, ampere well as trams and buses, became part of an integrated transport system in 1933 when the London Passenger Transport Board or London Transport was created. Transport for London is now the statutory pot creditworthy for most aspects of the enchant system in Greater London, and is run by a board and a commissioner appointed by the Mayor of London. [ 329 ]


London is a major international air transmit hub with the busiest city airspace in the world. Eight airports use the word London in their name, but most traffic passes through six of these. additionally, diverse other airports besides serve London, catering chiefly to general aviation flights .


underground and DLR

The London Underground, normally referred to as the Tube or just the Underground, is the oldest [ 345 ] and third longest [ 346 ] metro system in the world. The system serves 272 stations. [ 347 ] and was formed from respective individual companies, including the world ‘s first gear underground electric line, the City and South London Railway. [ 348 ] It dates from 1863. [ 349 ] Over four million journeys are made every day on the Underground net, over 1 billion each year. [ 350 ] An investment program is attempting to reduce congestion and improve dependability, including £6.5 billion ( €7.7 billion ) spend before the 2012 Summer Olympics. [ 351 ] The Docklands Light Railway ( DLR ), which opened in 1987, is a second, more local metro system using smaller and lighter tram-type vehicles that serve the Docklands, Greenwich and Lewisham .


There are 368 railroad track stations in the London Travelcard Zones on an extensive above-ground suburban railroad track network. South London, peculiarly, has a high concentration of railways as it has fewer Underground lines. Most track lines terminate around the center of London, running into eighteen terminal stations, with the exception of the Thameslink trains connecting Bedford in the north and Brighton in the south via Luton and Gatwick airports. [ 352 ] London has Britain ‘s busiest station by issue of passengers— Waterloo, with over 184 million people using the exchange station complex ( which includes Waterloo East station ) each class. [ 353 ] [ 354 ] Clapham Junction is the busiest station in Europe by the act of trains passing. With the motivation for more train capacity in London, the Elizabeth Line ( besides known as Crossrail ) opened in May 2022. [ 355 ] It is a new railroad track agate line running east to west through London and into the Home Counties with a ramify to Heathrow Airport. [ 356 ] It was Europe ‘s biggest construction project, with a £15 billion projected cost. [ 357 ] [ 358 ]

Inter-city and international

London is the concentrate of the National Rail network, with 70 per penny of rail journeys starting or ending in London. [ 359 ] King ‘s Cross station and Euston station, which are both in London, are the starting points of the East Coast Main Line and the West Coast Main Line – the two main railway lines in Britain. Like suburban rail services, regional and inter-city trains depart from several terminal around the city centre, linking London with the rest of Britain including Aberdeen, Birmingham, Blackpool, Bradford, Brighton, Bristol, Cambridge, Cardiff, Carlisle, Chester, Coventry, Crewe, Derby, Doncaster, Dover, Edinburgh, Exeter, Glasgow, Holyhead ( for Dublin ), Hull, Ipswich, Lancaster, Leeds, Liverpool, Nottingham, Manchester, Newcastle, Norwich, Oxford, Peterborough, Plymouth, Portsmouth, Preston, Reading, Sheffield, Southampton, Sunderland, Stevenage, Swansea, Weymouth, Wolverhampton and York. [ 360 ] London besides has convenient rail connections with airports out of Greater London. These airports include Birmingham Airport ( via Birmingham International railroad track station ), East Midlands Airport ( via East Midlands Parkway railway station ), Inverness Airport ( via Inverness railroad track post ), Leeds Bradford Airport ( via Bradford Interchange or Leeds railway station ) and Liverpool John Lennon Airport ( via Liverpool South Parkway railroad track place ). [ 360 ] Some international railroad track services to Continental Europe were operated during the twentieth century as boat trains, such as the Admiraal de Ruijter to Amsterdam and the Night Ferry to Paris and Brussels. The open of the Channel Tunnel in 1994 connect London directly to the continental rail network, allowing Eurostar services to begin. Since 2007, high-speed trains link St. Pancras International with Lille, Calais, Paris, Disneyland Paris, Brussels, Amsterdam and other european tourist destinations via the High Speed 1 vilify liaison and the Channel Tunnel. [ 361 ] The first high-speed domestic trains started in June 2009 linking Kent to London. [ 362 ] There are plans for a second high accelerate lineage linking London to the Midlands, North West England, and Yorkshire .


Although track freight levels are far gloomy compared to their altitude, meaning quantities of cargo are besides carried into and out of London by rail ; chiefly building materials and landfill lay waste to. As a major hub of the british railroad track network, London ‘s tracks besides carry large amounts of freight for the other regions, such as container freight from the Channel Tunnel and English Channel ports, and nuclear thriftlessness for reprocessing at Sellafield. [ 363 ]

Buses, coaches and trams

London ‘s busbar network runs 24 hours a day with about 9,300 vehicles, over 675 bus routes and about 19,000 bus topology stops. [ 364 ] In 2019/1920 the network had over 2 billion commuter trips per year. [ 365 ] Since 2010 and average of £1.2 billion is taken in gross each year. [ 366 ] London has one of the largest wheelchair-accessible networks in the universe [ 367 ] and from the one-third one-fourth of 2007, became more accessible to hearing and visually mar passengers as audio-visual announcements were introduced. [ 368 ] London ‘s coach hub is Victoria Coach Station, an Art Deco build opened in 1932. The coach post was initially run by a group of bus companies under the mention of London Coastal Coaches ; however, in 1970 the service and station were included in the nationalization of the state ‘s coach services, becoming part of the National Bus Company. In 1988, the coach post was purchased by London Transport which then became Transport for London. Victoria Coach Station has over 14 million passengers a year and provides services across the UK and continental Europe. [ 369 ] London has a modern tramcar network, known as Tramlink, centred on Croydon in South London. The net has 39 stops and four routes, and carried 28 million people in 2013. [ 370 ] [ 371 ] Since June 2008, Transport for London has completely owned and operated Tramlink. [ 372 ]

cable cable car

London ‘s first and to date entirely cable car is the London Cable Car, which opened in June 2012. The cable cable car crosses the Thames and links Greenwich Peninsula with the Royal Docks in the east of the city. It is integrated with London ‘s Oyster Card ticketing system, although the Emirates Air Line fares are not included in the Oyster casual cap. [ 373 ] It cost £60 million to build and can carry up to 2,500 passengers per hour in each commission at bill times. like to the London Cycle Hire Scheme bicycle lease scheme, the cable television cable car was sponsored in a 10-year consider by the airline Emirates. [ 374 ]


Santander Cycle Hire near Victoria in Central London In the Greater London Area, around 670,000 people use a motorcycle every day, [ 375 ] meaning around 7 % of the sum population of around 8.8 million consumption a bicycle on an average day. [ 376 ] [ 377 ] This relatively low share of bicycle users may be due to the inadequate investments for motorbike in London of about £110 million per year, [ 378 ] equating to around £12 per person, which can be compared to £22 in the Netherlands. [ 379 ] cycle has become an increasingly democratic way to get around London. The launch of a bicycle hire system in July 2010 was successful and generally well received. [ 380 ]

Port and river boats

The Port of London, once the largest in the world, is now lone the second-largest in the United Kingdom, handling 45 million tonnes of cargo each year as of 2009. [ 308 ] Most of this cargo passes through the Port of Tilbury, outside the boundary of Greater London. [ 308 ] London has river boat services on the Thames known as Thames Clippers, which offer both commuter and tourist gravy boat services. [ 381 ] At major piers including Canary Wharf, London Bridge City, Battersea Power Station and London Eye ( Waterloo ), services depart at least every 20 minutes during commuter times. [ 382 ] The Woolwich Ferry, with 2.5 million passengers every year, is a frequent service linking the North and South Circular Roads. [ 383 ]


Although the majority of journeys in cardinal London are made by populace transport, car travel is common in the suburb. The inner ring road ( around the city kernel ), the North and South Circular roads ( precisely within the suburb ), and the out orbital expressway ( the M25, barely outside the built-up sphere in most places ) encircle the city and are intersected by a number of busy radial routes—but very few motorways penetrate into inside London. A plan for a comprehensive network of motorways throughout the city ( the Ringways Plan ) was prepared in the 1960s but was largely cancelled in the early 1970s. [ 384 ] The M25 is the second-longest ring-road expressway in Europe at 117 miles ( 188 km ) long. [ 385 ] The A1 and M1 connect London to Leeds, and Newcastle and Edinburgh .
The hackney carriage ( black taxi ) is a coarse sight on London streets. Although traditionally black, this is not a requirement with some painted in other colours or bearing ad. The Austin Motor Company began making hackney carriages ( London cab ) in 1929, and models include Austin FX3 from 1948, Austin FX4 from 1958, with more recent models TXII and TX4 manufactured by London Taxis International. The BBC states, “ omnipresent black taxi and red bus buses all have long and entangle stories that are deeply embedded in London ’ s traditions ”. [ 386 ] London is ill-famed for its traffic congestion ; in 2009, the average travel rapidly of a car in the rush hour was recorded at 10.6 miles per hour ( 17.1 kilometers per hour ). [ 387 ] In 2003, a congestion charge was introduced to reduce traffic volumes in the city center. With a few exceptions, motorists are required to pay to drive within a specify zone encompassing much of central London. [ 388 ] Motorists who are residents of the specify zone can buy a greatly reduced temper pass. [ 389 ] [ 390 ] The London government initially expected the Congestion Charge Zone to increase daily acme period Underground and bus users, reduce road dealings, increase traffic speeds, and reduce queues ; [ 391 ] however, the increase in private for hire vehicles has affected these expectations. Over the course of several years, the modal count of cars entering the kernel of London on a weekday was reduced from 195,000 to 125,000 cars – a 35-per-cent reduction of vehicles driven per day. [ 392 ] [ 393 ]


third education

London is a major global center of higher education teach and research and has the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. [ 21 ] According to the QS World University Rankings 2015/16, London has the greatest concentration of exceed class universities in the world [ 394 ] [ 395 ] and its international student population of around 110,000 is larger than any other city in the world. [ 396 ] A 2014 PricewaterhouseCoopers report termed London the global capital of higher education. [ 397 ]
A number of world-leading education institutions are based in London. In the 2021 QS World University Rankings, Imperial College London is ranked No. 8 in the global, University College London ( UCL ) is rank tenth, and King ‘s College London ( KCL ) is graded thirty-first. [ 398 ] The London School of Economics has been described as the worldly concern ‘s lead social science initiation for both teaching and research. [ 399 ] The London Business School is considered one of the earth ‘s leave business schools and in 2015 its MBA plan was ranked second-best in the world by the Financial Times. [ 400 ] The city is besides home to three of the world ‘s top ten performing arts schools ( as ranked by the 2020 QS World University Rankings [ 401 ] ) : the Royal College of Music ( ranking 2nd in the world ), the Royal Academy of Music ( ranking 4th ) and the Guildhall School of Music and Drama ( ranking 6th ). [ 402 ] With students in London [ 403 ] and around 48,000 in University of London Worldwide, [ 404 ] the federal University of London is the largest contact teaching university in the UK. [ 405 ] It includes five multi-faculty universities – City, King ‘s College London, Queen Mary, Royal Holloway and UCL – and a number of smaller and more specialize institutions including Birkbeck, the Courtauld Institute of Art, Goldsmiths, the London Business School, the London School of Economics, the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, the Royal Academy of Music, the Central School of Speech and Drama, the Royal Veterinary College and the School of Oriental and African Studies. [ 406 ] Members of the University of London have their own admissions procedures, and most award their own degrees .
A phone number of universities in London are outside the University of London system, including Brunel University, Imperial College London, [ note 6 ] Kingston University, London Metropolitan University, [ 407 ] University of East London, University of West London, University of Westminster, London South Bank University, Middlesex University, and University of the Arts London ( the largest university of art, blueprint, fashion, communication and the perform arts in Europe ). [ 408 ] In addition, there are three international universities in London – Regent ‘s University London, Richmond, The American International University in London and Schiller International University. London is home to five major aesculapian schools – Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry ( region of Queen Mary ), King ‘s College London School of Medicine ( the largest checkup school in Europe ), Imperial College School of Medicine, UCL Medical School and St George ‘s, University of London – and has many affiliated teach hospitals. It is besides a major center for biomedical research, and three of the UK ‘s eight academic health skill centres are based in the city – Imperial College Healthcare, King ‘s Health Partners and UCL Partners ( the largest such center in Europe ). [ 409 ] Additionally, many biomedical and biotechnology spin out companies from these research institutions are based around the city, most prominently in White City. Founded by pioneering nurse Florence Nightingale at St Thomas ‘ hospital in 1860, the beginning nurse school is now part of King ‘s College London. [ 410 ] There are a count of business schools in London, including the London School of Business and Finance, Cass Business School ( part of City University London ), Hult International Business School, ESCP Europe, European Business School London, Imperial College Business School, the London Business School and the UCL School of Management. London is besides home to many specialist arts education institutions, including the Central School of Ballet, London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art ( LAMDA ; president Benedict Cumberbatch ), London College of Contemporary Arts ( LCCA ), London Contemporary Dance School, National Centre for Circus Arts, Royal Academy of Dramatic Art ( RADA ; president Sir Kenneth Branagh ), Rambert School of Ballet and Contemporary Dance, the Royal College of Art, Sylvia Young Theatre School and Trinity Laban. [ 411 ] [ 412 ] Located in the London borough of Croydon, the BRIT School provides trail for the acting arts and the technologies that make performance possible, with actor Tom Holland among their alumni. [ 413 ]

Primary and secondary coil education

The majority of basal and secondary coil schools and further-education colleges in London are controlled by the London boroughs or otherwise state-funded ; leading examples include Ashbourne College, Bethnal Green Academy, Brampton Manor Academy, City and Islington College, City of Westminster College, David Game College, Ealing, Hammersmith and West London College, Leyton Sixth Form College, London Academy of Excellence, Tower Hamlets College, and Newham Collegiate Sixth Form Centre. There are besides a number of private schools and colleges in London, some old and celebrated, such as City of London School, Harrow, St Paul ‘s School, Haberdashers ‘ Aske ‘s Boys ‘ School, University College School, The John Lyon School, Highgate School and Westminster School .


Important scientific learned societies based in London include the Royal Society —the UK ‘s national academy of sciences and the oldest national scientific institution in the world—founded in 1660, [ 414 ] and the Royal Institution, founded in 1799 ; the basement of the latter is where Michael Faraday first demonstrated electric motion in 1821. [ 415 ] Since 1825, the Royal Institution Christmas Lectures have presented scientific subjects to a general hearing, and speakers have included aerospace engineer Frank Whittle, naturalist David Attenborough and evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins. [ 416 ]


leisure and entertainment

leisure is a major partially of the London economy. A 2003 report attributed a one-fourth of the entire UK leisure economy to London [ 417 ] at 25.6 events per 1000 people. [ 418 ] The city is one of the four fashion capitals of the world, and, according to official statistics, is the world ‘s third-busiest film production center, presents more survive drollery than any other city, [ 419 ] and has the biggest dramaturgy hearing of any city in the world. [ 420 ]
Within the City of Westminster in London, the entertainment district of the West conclusion has its stress around Leicester Square, where London and global film premieres are held, and Piccadilly Circus, with its giant electronic advertisements. [ 421 ] London ‘s dramaturgy zone is here, as are many cinemas, bars, clubs, and restaurants, including the city ‘s Chinatown zone ( in Soho ), and equitable to the east is Covent Garden, an area housing peculiarity shops. The city is the home of Andrew Lloyd Webber, whose musicals have dominated West End dramaturgy since the late twentieth hundred. [ 422 ] Agatha Christie ‘s The Mousetrap, the world ‘s longest-running bring, has been performed in the West goal since 1952. [ 423 ] The Laurence Olivier Awards –named after Laurence Olivier –are given per annum by the Society of London Theatre. The Royal Ballet, English National Ballet, Royal Opera, and English National Opera are based in London and perform at the Royal Opera House, the London Coliseum, Sadler ‘s Wells Theatre, and the Royal Albert Hall, arsenic well as touring the country. [ 424 ]
Islington ‘s 1 nautical mile ( 1.6 km ) long Upper Street, extending northwards from Angel, has more bars and restaurants than any other street in the UK. [ 425 ] Europe ‘s busiest shopping sphere is Oxford Street, a patronize street about 1 mile ( 1.6 km ) long, making it the longest shop street in the UK. It is home to huge numbers of retailers and department stores, including Selfridges flagship shop. [ 426 ] Knightsbridge, home to the equally celebrated Harrods department store, lies to the southwest. Opened in 1760 with its flagship memory on Regent Street since 1881, Hamleys is the oldest miniature storehouse in the universe. [ 427 ] Madame Tussauds wax museum opened in Baker Street in 1835. [ 428 ] London is home to designers Vivienne Westwood, Galliano, Stella McCartney, Manolo Blahnik, and Jimmy Choo, among others ; its celebrated art and fashion schools make it one of the four international centres of fashion. London offers a great variety of cuisine as a result of its ethnically divers population. Gastronomic centres include the Bangladeshi restaurants of Brick Lane and the chinese restaurants of Chinatown. [ 429 ] Chinese takeaways are located throughout London, as are indian restaurants which provide indian and anglo-indian cuisine. [ 430 ] Around 1860, the first fish and chips shop in London ( and rival for the oldest ) was opened by Joseph Malin, a jewish immigrant, in Bow, east London. [ 386 ] [ 431 ] The full English breakfast dates from the victorian era, and many cafe ‘s in London serve a full english throughout the day. [ 432 ] As of 2022 London has five three Michelin headliner restaurants, including Restaurant Gordon Ramsay in Chelsea. [ 433 ] many hotels in London provide a traditional afternoon tea service, such as the Oscar Wilde Lounge at the Hotel Café Royal in Piccadilly, and a theme tea service is besides available, for exemplar an Alice in Wonderland themed afternoon tea served at the Egerton House Hotel, and Charlie and the Chocolate Factory themed afternoon tea at One Aldwych in Covent Garden. [ 434 ] [ 435 ] [ 436 ]
Shakespeare’s Globe is a modern reconstruction of the Globe Theatre on the south bank of the Thames. There is a variety of annual events, beginning with the relatively new New Year ‘s Day Parade, a firework display at the London Eye ; the universe ‘s second largest street party, the Notting Hill Carnival, is held on the belated August Bank Holiday each year. Traditional parades include November ‘s Lord Mayor ‘s Show, a centuries-old event celebrating the annual appointment of a fresh Lord Mayor of the City of London with a progress along the streets of the city, and June ‘s Trooping the Colour, a formal military pageant performed by regiments of the Commonwealth and british armies to celebrate the Queen ‘s official Birthday. [ 437 ] The Boishakhi Mela is a Bengali New Year festival celebrated by the british Bangladeshi community. It is the largest alfresco asian festival in Europe. After the Notting Hill Carnival, it is the second-largest street festival in the United Kingdom attracting over 80,000 visitors from across the nation. [ 438 ] first held in 1862, the RHS Chelsea Flower Show ( run by the Royal Horticultural Society ) takes position over five days in May every year. [ 439 ]

LGBT setting

The first gay bar in London in the advanced sense was The Cave of the Golden Calf, established as a night club in an underground location at 9 Heddon Street, just off Regent Street, in 1912 and became a haunt for the affluent, aristocratic and bohemian. [ 440 ] While London has been an LGBT tourism finish, after homosexuality was decriminalized in England in 1967 brave legal profession culture became more visible, and from the early 1970s Soho ( and in particular Old Compton Street ) gradually became the center of the London LGBT residential district. [ 441 ] G-A-Y based at Heaven is a long-running night club. Wider british cultural movements have influenced LGBT culture, for model the emergence of glam rock in the UK in the early 1970s via Bolan and Bowie saw a generation of teeny-boppers begin playing with the idea of androgyny, and the West End melodious, The Rocky Horror Show, which debuted in London in 1973, is besides widely said to have been an influence on countercultural and intimate dismissal movements. [ 442 ] The Blitz Kids ( which included Boy George ) frequented the Tuesday club-night at Blitz in Covent Garden, helping launch the New Romantic subcultural apparent motion in the late 1970s. [ 443 ] Today the annual London Pride Parade and the London Lesbian and Gay Film Festival are held in the city. [ 441 ]

literature, film and television

London has been the setting for many works of literature. The pilgrims in Geoffrey Chaucer ‘s late 14th-century Canterbury Tales set out for Canterbury from London—specifically, from the Tabard hostel, Southwark. William Shakespeare spent a big depart of his life living and working in London ; his contemporary Ben Jonson was besides based there, and some of his work, most notably his playing period The Alchemist, was set in the city. [ 444 ] A Journal of the Plague Year ( 1722 ) by Daniel Defoe is a fabrication of the events of the 1665 Great Plague. [ 444 ] The literary centres of London have traditionally been cragged Hampstead and ( since the early on twentieth century ) Bloomsbury. Writers close associated with the city are the diarist Samuel Pepys, noted for his eyewitness account of the Great Fire ; Charles Dickens, whose representation of a brumous, snow-white, begrimed London of street sweepers and pickpockets has been a major influence on people ‘s vision of early victorian London ; and Virginia Woolf, regarded as one of the foremost modernist literary figures of the twentieth hundred. [ 444 ] Later significant depictions of London from the 19th and early twentieth centuries are Arthur Conan Doyle ‘s Sherlock Holmes stories. [ 444 ] besides of significance is Letitia Elizabeth Landon ‘s Calendar of the London Seasons ( 1834 ). advanced writers pervasively influenced by the city include Peter Ackroyd, author of a “ biography ” of London, and Iain Sinclair, who writes in the music genre of psychogeography. In the 1940s, George Orwell wrote essays in the London Evening Standard, most notably “ A Nice Cup of Tea “, which concerned the nation ‘s methods on making tea, and “ The Moon Under Water “, which provided a detail description of his ideal public house. [ 445 ] In 1958, author Michael Bond created Paddington Bear, a refugee found in London Paddington station by the Brown syndicate who adopt him. Paddington has been adapted for the screen, including Paddington ( 2014 ) which features the calypso song “ London is the place for Me “. [ 446 ]
London has played a significant role in the film industry. major studios within or bordering London include Pinewood, Elstree, Ealing, Shepperton, Twickenham, and Leavesden, with the James Bond and Harry Potter series among many noteworthy films produced here. [ 447 ] [ 448 ] Working Title Films has its headquarters in London. [ 449 ] A post-production residential district is centred in Soho, and London houses six of the populace ’ south largest ocular effects companies, such as Framestore. [ 450 ] The Imaginarium, a digital performance-capture studio apartment, was founded by Andy Serkis. [ 451 ] London has been the jell for films including Oliver Twist ( 1948 ), Scrooge ( 1951 ), Peter Pan ( 1953 ), The 101 Dalmatians ( 1961 ), My Fair Lady ( 1964 ), Mary Poppins ( 1964 ), Blowup ( 1966 ), A Clockwork Orange ( 1971 ), The Long Good Friday ( 1980 ), The Great Mouse Detective ( 1986 ), Notting Hill ( 1999 ), Love Actually ( 2003 ), V for Vendetta ( 2005 ), Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street ( 2008 ) and The King’s Speech ( 2010 ). celebrated actors and filmmakers from London include ; Charlie Chaplin, Alfred Hitchcock, Michael Caine, Emma Thompson, Gary Oldman, Guy Ritchie, Christopher Nolan, Alan Rickman, Jude Law, Helena Bonham Carter, Idris Elba, Tom Hardy, Keira Knightley and Daniel Day-Lewis. Ealing comedies have featured Alec Guinness, Hammer Horrors have starred Christopher Lee, while Richard Curtis ‘s rom-coms have featured Hugh Grant. The largest cinema chain in the area, Odeon Cinemas was founded in London in 1928 by Oscar Deutsch. [ 452 ] first held in 1949, since 2017 the british Academy Film Awards ( BAFTAs ) have taken seat at the Royal Albert Hall. Founded in 1957, the BFI London Film Festival takes place over two weeks every October. [ 453 ] London is a major center for television production, with studios including Television Centre, ITV Studios, Sky Campus and Fountain Studios ; the latter hosted the master endowment shows, Pop Idol, The X Factor, and Britain’s Got Talent, before each format was exported around the world. [ 454 ] [ 455 ] once a franchise of ITV, Thames Television featured comedians such as Benny Hill and Rowan Atkinson ( Mr. Bean was first screened by Thames ), while Talkback produced Da Ali G Show which featured Sacha Baron Cohen as Ali G, a faux-streetwise gangster from Staines, west of London. [ 456 ] many television shows have been set in London, including the popular television soap opera EastEnders, broadcast by the BBC since 1985. [ 457 ]

Museums, artwork galleries and libraries

London is home to many museums, galleries, and other institutions, many of which are spare of entrance fee charges and are major tourist attractions ampere well as playing a inquiry function. The first of these to be established was the british Museum in Bloomsbury, in 1753. [ 458 ] Originally containing antiquities, natural history specimens, and the national library, the museum now has 7 million artefacts from around the earth. In 1824, the National Gallery was founded to house the british national collection of western paintings ; this now occupies a big position in Trafalgar Square. [ 459 ] The british Library is the second largest library in the world, and the national library of the United Kingdom. [ 460 ] [ 461 ] [ 462 ] There are many other research libraries, including the Wellcome Library and Dana Centre, adenine well as university libraries, including the british Library of Political and Economic Science at LSE, the Central Library at Imperial, the Maughan Library at King ‘s, and the Senate House Libraries at the University of London. [ 463 ] [ 464 ] In the latter one-half of the nineteenth century the venue of South Kensington was developed as “ Albertopolis “, a cultural and scientific quarter. Three major national museums are there : the Victoria and Albert Museum ( for the give arts ), the Natural History Museum, and the Science Museum. The National Portrait Gallery was founded in 1856 to house depictions of figures from british history ; its holdings nowadays comprise the world ‘s most extensive solicitation of portraits. [ 465 ] The national gallery of british art is at Tate Britain, originally established as an annex of the National Gallery in 1897. The Tate Gallery, as it was once known, besides became a major center for modern art. In 2000, this collection moved to Tate Modern, a raw gallery housed in the early Bankside Power Station, which was built by the Basel -based architecture firm of Herzog & de Meuron. [ 466 ]


The Royal Albert Hall hosts concerts and musical events, including The Proms which are held every summer, adenine well as cinema screenings of films accompanied with live orchestral music. London is one of the major classical and popular music capitals of the worldly concern and hosts major music corporations, such as Universal Music Group International and Warner Music Group, and countless bands, musicians and diligence professionals. The city is besides home to many orchestras and concert halls, such as the Barbican Arts Centre ( principal base of the London Symphony Orchestra and the London Symphony Chorus ), the Southbank Centre ( London Philharmonic Orchestra and the Philharmonia Orchestra ), Cadogan Hall ( Royal Philharmonic Orchestra ) and the Royal Albert Hall ( The Proms ). [ 424 ] The Proms, an eight-week summer season of daily orchestral authoritative music, ends with the last Night of the Proms ( works by Edward Elgar, Henry Wood, Thomas Arne and Hubert Parry feature at the climax ). London ‘s two main opera houses are the Royal Opera House and the London Coliseum ( home to the English National Opera ). [ 424 ] The UK ‘s largest pipe organ is at the Royal Albert Hall. other meaning instruments are in cathedrals and major churches—the church bells of St Clement Danes feature in the 1744 nursery rhyme “ Oranges and Lemons “, and the lyrics journey through churches and bells of eighteenth hundred London. [ 467 ] respective conservatoires are within the city : Royal Academy of Music, Royal College of Music, Guildhall School of Music and Drama and Trinity Laban .
London has numerous venues for rock and dad concerts, including the global ‘s busiest indoor venue, the O2 Arena, [ 469 ] and Wembley Arena, angstrom well as many mid-sized venues, such as Brixton Academy, the Hammersmith Apollo and the Shepherd ‘s Bush Empire. [ 424 ] several music festivals, including the Wireless Festival, Lovebox and Hyde Park ‘s british Summer Time, are held in London. [ 470 ] The city is home to the original Hard Rock Cafe and the Abbey Road Studios, where The Beatles recorded many of their hits. In the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, musicians and groups like Elton John, Pink Floyd, David Bowie, Queen, The Kinks, Cliff Richard, The Rolling Stones, The Who, Eric Clapton, Led Zeppelin, Iron Maiden, T. Rex, Fleetwood Mac, Elvis Costello, Dire Straits, Cat Stevens, The Police, The Cure, Madness, Culture Club, Dusty Springfield, Phil Collins, Rod Stewart, Status Quo and Sade, derived their audio from the streets and cycle of London. [ 471 ] [ 472 ] London was instrumental in the development of punk rocker music, with figures such as the Sex Pistols, The Clash and fashion couturier Vivienne Westwood all based in the city. [ 473 ] [ 474 ] early artists to emerge from the London music view include George Michael, Kate Bush, Seal, the Pet Shop Boys, Siouxsie and the Banshees, Bush, the Spice Girls, Jamiroquai, Blur, The Prodigy, Gorillaz, Mumford & Sons, Coldplay, Amy Winehouse, Adele, Sam Smith, Ed Sheeran, Ellie Goulding, Dua Lipa and Florence and the Machine. [ 475 ] [ 476 ] Artists from London with a caribbean influence include Hot Chocolate, Billy Ocean, Soul II Soul and Eddy Grant, with the latter fuse reggae, soul and samba with rock ‘n’ roll and pop. [ 477 ] London is besides a center for urban music. In particular the genres UK garage, cram and bass, dubstep and dirty evolved in the city from the foreign genres of house, pelvis hop, and reggae, aboard local anesthetic drum and bass. music station BBC Radio 1Xtra was set up to support the advance of local anesthetic urban contemporary music both in London and in the rest of the United Kingdom. The british Phonographic Industry ‘s annual popular music awards, the Brit Awards, are held in London, normally in February. [ 478 ]


Parks and open spaces

A 2013 report by the City of London Corporation said that London is the “ greenest city ” in Europe with 14,164 hectares ( 35,000 acres ) of public parks, woodlands and gardens. [ 479 ] The largest park in the central area of London are three of the eight Royal Parks, namely Hyde Park and its neighbor Kensington Gardens in the west, and Regent ‘s Park to the north. [ 480 ] Hyde Park in especial is democratic for sports and sometimes hosts alfresco concerts. Regent ‘s Park contains London Zoo, the global ‘s oldest scientific menagerie, and is about Madame Tussauds Wax Museum. [ 481 ] [ 482 ] Primrose Hill, immediately to the north of Regent ‘s Park, at 256 feet ( 78 thousand ) [ 483 ] is a popular blemish from which to view the city horizon. close to Hyde Park are smaller Royal Parks, Green Park and St. James ‘s Park. [ 484 ] A number of big parks lie outside the city center, including Hampstead Heath and the remaining Royal Parks of Greenwich Park to the southeast [ 485 ] and Bushy Park and Richmond Park ( the largest ) to the southwest, [ 486 ] [ 487 ] Hampton Court Park is besides a royal ballpark, but, because it contains a palace, it is administered by the Historic Royal Palaces, unlike the eight Royal Parks. [ 488 ] close to Richmond Park is Kew Gardens, which has the global ‘s largest solicitation of living plants. In 2003, the gardens were put on the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites. [ 489 ] There are besides parks administered by London ‘s borough Councils, including Victoria Park in the East End and Battersea Park in the center. Some more informal, semi-natural unfold spaces besides exist, including the 320-hectare ( 790-acre ) Hampstead Heath of North London, [ 490 ] and Epping Forest, which covers 2,476 hectares ( 6,118 acres ) [ 491 ] in the east. Both are controlled by the City of London Corporation. [ 492 ] [ 493 ] Hampstead Heath incorporates Kenwood House, a early stately home and a popular location in the summer months when classical melodious concerts are held by the lake, attracting thousands of people every weekend to enjoy the music, scenery and fireworks. [ 494 ] Epping Forest is a popular venue for assorted outdoor activities, including batch bicycle, walk, horse riding, golf, angling, and orienteering. [ 495 ]


Walking is a popular amateur activeness in London. Areas that provide for walks include Wimbledon Common, Epping Forest, Hampton Court Park, Hampstead Heath, the eight Royal Parks, canals and disused railway tracks. [ 496 ] Access to canals and rivers has improved recently, including the creation of the Thames Path, some 28 miles ( 45 kilometer ) of which is within Greater London, and The Wandle Trail ; this runs 12 miles ( 19 kilometer ) through South London along the River Wandle, a tributary of the River Thames. [ 497 ] early long-distance paths, linking green spaces, have besides been created, including the capital Ring, the Green Chain Walk, London Outer Orbital Path ( “ Loop ” ), Jubilee Walkway, Lea Valley Walk, and the Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Walk. [ 496 ]


London has hosted the Summer Olympics three times : in 1908, 1948, and 2012, [ 499 ] [ 500 ] making it the first city to host the modern Games three times. [ 34 ] The city was besides the master of ceremonies of the british Empire Games in 1934. [ 501 ] In 2017, London hosted the World Championships in Athletics for the first base time. [ 502 ] London ‘s most democratic sport is football, and it has seven clubs in the English Premier League in the 2022–23 temper : Arsenal, Brentford, Chelsea, Crystal Palace, Fulham, Tottenham Hotspur, and West Ham United. [ 503 ] other professional teams in London are AFC Wimbledon, Barnet, Bromley, Charlton Athletic, Dagenham & Redbridge, Leyton Orient, Millwall, Queens Park Rangers and Sutton United. From 1924, the original Wembley Stadium was the home of the English national football team. It hosted the 1966 FIFA World Cup Final, with England defeating West Germany, and served as the venue for the FA Cup Final angstrom good as rugby league ‘s Challenge Cup concluding. [ 504 ] The new Wembley Stadium serves precisely the same purposes and has a capability of 90,000. [ 505 ] Two Premiership Rugby union teams are based in London, Harlequins and London Irish. [ 506 ] Ealing Trailfinders, Richmond and Saracens dally in the RFU Championship and early rugby coupling clubs in the city include London Scottish, Rosslyn Park F.C., Westcombe Park R.F.C. and Blackheath F.C. Twickenham Stadium in southwest London hosts home matches for the England national rugby union team and has a capacity of 82,000 now that the newfangled south stand has been completed. [ 507 ] While rugby league is more popular in the north of England, there are two professional rugby league clubs in London – the London Broncos in the second-tier RFL Championship, who play at the Trailfinders Sports Ground in West Ealing, and the third-tier League 1 team, the London Skolars from Wood Green, Haringey. One of London ‘s best-known annual sports competitions is the Wimbledon Tennis Championships, held at the All England Club in the south-western suburb of Wimbledon since 1877. [ 508 ] Played in late June to early on July, it is the oldest tennis tournament in the populace and widely considered the most prestigious. [ 509 ] [ 510 ] [ 511 ] London has two Test cricket grounds, Lord ‘s ( home of Middlesex C.C.C. ) in St John ‘s Wood [ 512 ] and the Oval ( base of Surrey C.C.C. ) in Kennington. [ 513 ] Lord ‘s has hosted four finals of the Cricket World Cup and is known as the Home of Cricket. [ 514 ] other key events are the annual mass-participation London Marathon, in which some 35,000 runners attempt a 26.2-mile ( 42.2 kilometer ) course around the city, [ 515 ] and the University Boat Race on the Thames from Putney to Mortlake. [ 516 ]

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