Blockchain technology in supply chain operations: Applications, challenges and research opportunities

Blockchain overview and adoption challenges in supply chains 1 Al-Jaroodi and Mohamed (2019) This paper highlights that the blockchain technology has the capability of resolving bottlenecks, paving way for future research, addressing issues using shared, secured, distributed and permissioned transactional ledgers which have made it inevitable and a forefront runner of the research in various industrial sectors. 2 Chang et al. (2019b) In this paper, authors present the overview of blockchain in global SC and trade operations through industry reports and scietific articles with its challenges, opportunities and future scope of research. The focus of this paper is on the need of industry, government, and academia working together to harness the full potential of blockchain. 3 Crew (2018) The paper talks about how blockchain can transform all the industrial and services sectors globally and how beneficial is it to switch to blockchain for firms. 4 Feng et al (2019) It analyses the potential threat blockchain technology poses in the context of privacy and mechanisms to preserve anonymity along with transaction details. 5 Gurtu and Johny (2019) The paper reviews the literature on blockchain technology, its trends, implications and the potential value that can be generated in the field of SCM. 6 Juma et al. (2019) In this article, authors presents a survey document on various applications of blockchain in trade SC and its challenges in SC design while integrating blockchain. 7 Khosla et al. (2019) In this paper, authors present a basic overview of blockchain technology in SCM and its ongoing popularity in SC applications. 8 Peck (2017) Assesses the cost benefit analysis for implementation of blockchain technology, its comparison to current data management techniques and the feasibility analysis for it to scale up for future use. 9 Pournader et al (2020) The authors propose a hypothetical structural model based on blockchain technology for traceability, transparency, trust, and trade. 10 O’Leary (2019) The paper reviews the applications used for information capture and distribution and the concerns associated with the technology i.e. data independence and multiple semantic models for information distribution. 11 Queiroz et al (2019) It analyses the application of blockchain in management of future SCs, possible integration and disruptions to be expected. 12 Saberi et al (2019) The paper summaries the data gathered from respondents on blockchain implementation findings, what encourages and what discourages companies to adopt blockchain technology. 13 Shamout (2019) This article reviews the papers documenting how blockchain supports SC and logistics industry. 14 Sidorov et al (2019) It describes that blockchain technology is a decentralized option that ensures higher immutability, transparency, data protection, reliability and lower management costs for RFID as compared to a centralized database. 15 Srivastava (2019) The efficiency (production and transaction costs) of different types of governance systems closely related to the selection of the most efficient types of inter and intra organizational structures is studied. A mathematical model based on M/M/1 queue model has also been developed to assess the processing time required for transactions. 16 Tijan et al (2019) It explores the integration of blockchain in SC logistics and management with the use of decentralized storage systems for data. 17 Wang et al. (2019a) It provides insights on the use of blockchain for SC and possible research directions. It was an early stage review and hence considered very limited number of articles. 18 Casino et al (2019) It investigates the current position of use of blockchain in various potential fields like SC, data management, IoT, businesses, etc. It also identifies the shortcomings of implementing blockchain and the roadblocks. 19 Firica (2017) Pros and cons are reviewed for blockchain adoption in different industries and service sectors. 20 Hoek (2019a) This paper introduces a framework for conscious adoption of blockchain for the SC problems and emphasizes the need to understand that blockchain might not be right technology for all SC problems. 21 Kumar et al. (2020) The paper offers a systematic way to weigh in the economics of block chain technology adoption in terms of cost and risk from the context of a food SC. It recom mends that the blockchain solutions should be used selectively and should not be applied in all the business problems. 22 Surjandy et al (2019a) This article explores the 48 critical parameters for blockchain adoption in SCM. 23 Zheng et al (2019) The paper studies the risk decision making problem faced by a three-level spacecraft SC composed of a spacecraft builder, supplier, and logistics service integrator. Supply chain reengineering 24 Chang et al. (2019a) It states that blockchains enhance the transparency and visibility and achieve synchronization of tracking information in all arenas of businesses. Moreover, process automation and elimination of intermediaries with the use of smart contracts further helps in process re-engineering. 25 Chen and Wang (2020) The paper introduces fractional calculus to establish a three-dimensional SC game model and uses the non-linear dynamics theory to analyse it. 26 Dolgui et al (2019) It studies the development and testing of a blockchain based dynamic model and computational algorithm using control for the smart contract design in the SC. 27 Epps et al (2019) The paper explores standardizing blockchain implementation in SC so that it can be scaled to global level and can cross the regulatory barriers. 28 Gao et al (2018) Blockchain is implemented in the SC for its distributed ledger technology which provides a way to organize records in a distributed manner through consensus mechanism. 29 Ivanov et al (2019) SC risk analytics framework was formed to analyse the connection among business, information, engineering and gather an analytics perspective on digitalization in SC. 30 Khare and Mittal (2019) The theme of this paper is on blockchain and IoT based solutions to enhance trust in organic product’s SC. 31 Kim and Kim (2018) This paper evaluates the utility of private, secure blockchains for securing and improving the cold blood management system. 32 Lu and Xu (2017) Blockchain technology is used for tracing the product origins across complex SCs through development of origin chain which is secure, transparent along with flexibility to accommodate regulatory changes in compliance. 33 Perboli et al (2018) Blockchain implementation into SC needs to be done in a step wise manner with first analysing the needs of all the stakeholders. GUEST (GO, UNIFORM, EVALUATE, SOLVE, and TEST) methodology is proposed to improve the returns from integrating blockchain with SC. 34 Tan et al (2018) This paper studies how blockchain has reduced the load at China international trading port by integrating and sharing information and data with all the actors involved. 35 Treiblmaier (2018) Blockchain implementation in SC leads to structural and managerial changes which is studied based on four theories: principal agent theory (PAT), transaction cost analysis (TCA), resource-based view (RBV) and network theory (NT). 36 Wang et al. (2019b) This paper investigates the perceived benefits, potential sectors transformed and the challenges for implementation of blockchain in SCs. 37 Wu et al (2017) In this paper, authors propose a framework for online tracking of information of items during their shipments. 38 Yoo and Won (2018) It states that blockchain can enable the customer to know the exact pricing from raw materials to suppliers and disclose all the data to the public domain. This will result in dissemination of honest information by all the stakeholders thus ensuring price transparency. Supply chain traceability 39 Behnke and Janssen (2019) The paper identifies the critical boundary conditions for sharing assurance information to boost traceability. It implies that only by modifying the SC system and fulfilling the boundary condition can lead to successful blockchain usage. 40 Choi (2019) Diamond authentication using BTS platforms is analyzed in the paper. A digital thumb print of the diamond is generated with the help of blockchain which can then be used to get all the details associated with the diamond. The traditional stores are compared with the BTS platform for diamond sales by building analytical models and the results are analyzed. 41 Cui et al. (2019) Here, authors examine an electronic products SC for its transportation of chips with integration of blochchain technology for security and traceability. 42 Fernández-Caramés et al (2019) In this paper, inventory data collected through UAVs is verified using blockchain which brings transparency and data trustworthiness. The system’s performance was tested in a real-life warehouse. 43 Figorilli et al (2018) Blockchain is implemented to provide end to end traceability for wood SC from the moment of cutting to transforming it into usable material. 44 Hastig and Sodhi (2019) In this paper, authors present a comprehensive study on blockchain for SC traceability, its success factors and overview of contemporary studies. 45 Kshetri and Loukoianova (2019) It discusses about cases in automobile, food and other industries to highlight the crisis and huge losses incurred due to lack of visibility and traceability in SC, which can be solved using blockchain. 46 Liu and Li (2019) It involves developing a block chain-based framework to solve the product and transactions traceability issue in SCM. It also discusses the effectiveness, security and implementation issues for the solution. Security enhancement by blockchain 47 Engelenburg et al. (2019) The focus of this paper is to design a structure for data sharing between businesses and government based on certain protocols. 48 Fu and Zhu (2019a) Here, authors use blockchain and big data technology for integellient logistics systems for operational efficiency and data security. 49 Fu and Zhu (2019b) Authors propose that blockchain manages risk in SC through its application in the big production enterprise SC, where each of the business subject’s problems is resolved and fraud detection is done more robustly. 50 Kim and Laskowski (2018) Blockchain and IoT help in granular provenance of physical goods which are produced and transported in complex, inter-organizational or internationally spanning SCs. This is studied using traceability ontologies and constraints on Ethereum blockchain. 51 Kshetri (2017a) The author proposes that blockchain strengthens cybersecurity and gives better performance in security, privacy protection and asset management than centralized IoT systems. 52 Liang et al (2019) The paper examines a blockchain based new data management scheme to improve credibility and prevent performance risks in trade data processing. 53 Meng et al (2018) This work proposes that blockchain helps create and collaborative intrusion detection systems where the product ids can interact with each other and exchange data. The protection and security feature of blockchain ensures integrity of data storage and transparency which will guarantee security of the IDs. 54 Min (2019) It is proposed that blockchain technology can help capture both organizational and network risks associated with any SC due to their structural network of nodes. 55 Montecchi et al (2019) This article focuses on how blockchain technologies deliver SC provenance by providing certifiability, traceability, verifiability and trackability of product information along the SC. 56 Toyoda et al (2017) It develops a product ownership management system for anti-counterfeits in post SC. Adoption and implementation of blockchain in supply chains 57 Allen et al (2019) It states that blockchain as a decentralized economic infrastructure can be applied for reducing the trade costs across complex global SCs. Block chain technology has potential to not only make the existing SCs more efficient but also open up new markets and trading patterns. 58 Azzi et al (2019) The paper describes the integration of SC architecture with the block chain. The benefits associated with the integration as well as requirements, challenges faced in blockchain based SC ecosystems are discussed. Select example cases of two swiss startups are illustrated. 59 Betti et al (2019) The paper discusses the application of blockchain, and smart contracts being applied to hyperconnected logistics. 60 Christodoulou et al (2018) In this work, a smart contract mechanism is presented through blockchain for the advantages in logistics. 61 Cole et al (2019) In this paper, the application of blockchain in the SCM domain is discussed. 62 Garifova et al (2019) The authors mention that blockchain can help in reducing cost and errors while moving goods in logistics. 63 Goyat et al. (2019) The authors present several aspects of blockchain implication in SCM. 64 Hald and Kinra (2019) The paper deals with the effect of blockchain technology implementation on SC performance. A theoretical approach is used to develop propositions to analyse the performance. 65 Hartley and Sawaya (2019) It investigates the promise of blockchain and other emerging technologies to forecast their potential for adoption and suggest measures to be taken before adoption of the technologies. 66 Helo and Hao (2019) It explores the applications of Blockchain technology in operations and SCs as well as designing and building a reference blockchain-based logistics monitoring system (BLMS). 67 Hirsh et al (2018) The paper describes the current as well as future applications of blockchain technology. It also uncovers the outcomes of research work (Project Chain, Project Novum) completed by the panellists. 68 Hoek (2019c) The paper presents an empirical research on exploration and implementation of blockchain in SC. It also details multiple pilot case studies of companies pioneering block chain technology adoption in SC. 69 Hoek (2019b) This research paper highlights the outcome from a workshop, attended by managers working in SC domain, on drivers, barriers and focus areas for blockchain implementation in SCM. 70 Hughes et al (2019) It shows how blockchain can be of assistance to governments for protecting democratic principles. Management of registries, digitization of land right, secure and lawful execution of voting are some ways in which blockchain can help transform government activities. 71 Hütten (2019) It shows how blockchain technology helps in government service, enhances global SCs and contributes to transformation of ownership. 72 Kamble et al. (2019b) From Indian perspective, study is done to analyse how well can Indian SCs adapt to the integration of blockchain in SCs. The study was based on three adoption theories – Technology acceptance model, technology readiness index and the theory of planned behavior. 73 Karamchandani et al (2019) The article provides an impact analysis of implementation of Enterprise Blockchain (EBC) usefulness in service industry. They validate the hypothesis on six SC dimensions namely, supply uncertainty (only for product SC), information quality, mass customisation, service quality, delivery reliability and customer relationship. 74 Kim and Shin (2019) In this paper, the effects of blockchain in SC activities on SC performance outcomes like SC partnership growth and efficiency are investigated. 75 Lacity (2018) This paper explores the reason for blockchain research being mainly proof of concept and not being implemented worldwide. It analyses the managerial and technological implications for the same. 76 Li et al. (2019c) In this paper, authors applies blockchain for SC traceability and security issues for table grape SC. 77 Liu et al (2019) The paper adopts a numerical simulation to analyze the risk aversion, weighted proportion and the impact of blockchain on the SC. 78 Longo et al. (2019b) The paper aims to assess the performance, explore the potential for deploying blockchain technology in SC by recreating a simulation model of block chain integrated SC. 79 Mariappan (2019) The paper discusses the use of blockchain technology at the global level, the problems incurred during implementation and India’s policy on it through data gathering and reviews. 80 Martinez et al (2019) It shows how blockchain can be effectively used for customer order management in operations and SCs. Th resources, dynamic capabilities required for blockchain implementation are outlined. 81 Narayanaswami et al (2019) Increasing customer demand leads to complexity in the SC. The paper deals with the proposal of software architecture which also incorporates blockchain into the architecture. 82 O’Leary (2017) It highlights the utilization of cloud based and private blockchain system for gathering and processing transactions in auditing, accounting, SC and other transaction information types. 83 O’Leary (2018) The paper investigates open information transactions, its implications on different sectors and the use blockchain to provide a single source of truth for all information flow. 84 Pally and Reddy (2019) It focuses on creation of a general blockchain network to spread information among the participants across the SC. Use cases relating to implementation of blockchain has been discussed. 85 Pankowska (2019) It explores how blockchain helps interchain management, improves project management, and enhances interchain sustainability, relationship modelling and interchain coordination in different sectors globally. 86 Queiroz and Fosso Wamba (2019) It recommends that blockchain technology has enormous potential of managing the current business models in SCs and logistics because all transactions with blockchain are efficient, safer, economic, more transparent and traceable but the adoption is at a nascent stage which is influenced mainly by performance expectancy. 87 Rahmanzadeh et al. (2019) In this paper, authors use blockchain and fuzzy sets theory to design the ideas registering and tactical decision making of SC. 88 Roeck et al. (2019) This paper exemplifies through an empirical study that application of DLT in SC has dual effect. While cost saving and dependency-reduction are benefits, the loss in bargaining power (torpedo effect) might prove to be a disadvantage. 89 Schmidt and Wagner (2019) The paper presents a transaction cost theory perspective of how blockchain might influence SC relations and limits opportunistic behavior, impact of environmental uncertainty. 90 Sheel and Nath (2019) It states that blockchain adoption can create competitive advantage for a firm by enhancing SC parameters like agility, adaptability and alignment. Empirical study which connects the blockchain with the above SC parameters and competitive advantage of firm fits the model. 91 Tönnissen and Teuteberg (2019) The paper develops an explanatory model to explore whether blockchain technology leads to disintermediation and what all-intermediary task can be replaced by Blockchain technology in the logistics industry. 92 Wong et al (2019) It investigates the effect of different factors like complexity, cost, market dynamics, managerial support, relative advantage, competitive pressure and regulatory support on the adoption of blockchain by the SMEs of Malaysia. 93 Xu et al. (2019) Here, they show how the blockchain can help electronic products SC for its traceability and security for in forward and return management process. 94 Zelbst et al (2019) This article validates the untapped potential of multiple technologies (RFID, IIoT and Blockchain) utilized in tandem with each other for advancement in SCM through an empirical study.
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