A look into the future of blockchain technology

Abstract

In this newspaper, we use a Delphi approach to investigate whether, and to what extent, blockchain-based applications might affect firms ’ organizations, innovations, and strategies by 2030, and, consequently, which societal areas may be chiefly affected. We provide a trench sympathize of how the adoption of this engineering could lead to changes in Europe over multiple dimensions, ranging from business to polish and company, policy and regulation, economy, and engineering. From the projections that reached a significant consensus and were given a high probability of happening by the experts, we derive four scenarios built around two main dimensions : the digitization of assets and the exchange in business models .
Citation: Levis D, Fontana F, Ughetto E ( 2021 ) A look into the future of blockchain technology. PLoS ONE 16 ( 11 ) : e0258995. hypertext transfer protocol : //doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0258995 Editor: Alessandro Margherita, University of Salento, ITALY Received: June 1, 2021 ; Accepted: October 9, 2021 ; Published: November 17, 2021

Copyright: © 2021 Levis et alabama. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted function, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the master writer and informant are credited. Data Availability: All relevant data are within the newspaper. Funding: The authors received no specific support for this exploit. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist .

1 Introduction

Over the final few years, the hype and interest around blockchain technology have systematically increased. Practitioners from many industries and sectors have joined an open, however chiefly amorphous, discussion on the electric potential disruptive capabilities of this newly born technology [ 1 – 3 ]. In principle, the size of the phenomenon could be huge, with latest estimates predicting blockchain to store, by 2025, the 10 per penny of the world ’ sulfur GDP ( about $ 88tn in 2019 ) [ 4 ]. however, the complexity of the technology itself and the difficulties in assessing its impact across the unlike application fields have prevented the social, industrial and scientific communities to agree upon a share imagination of future blockchain-based scenarios. identical fundamental questions are still to be answered. Which blockchain-enabled applications will see the light in the adjacent few years ? Which industrial sectors will be chiefly affected ? How will companies react to electric potential industry-disruptors ? How will the current social paradigm switch ? Which function will policy makers play in enhancing this fresh prototype ?
Despite the great and undoubted technological invention linked to this engineering, uncertainties and speculation on the potential scenarios still animate the industrial and scientific dialogue [ 5 ]. In particular, it is not yet clear which applications will see the light, and, finally, what effects these changes will have at a social flat .
In this newspaper, we use a Delphi border on to investigate whether, and to what extent, blockchain-based applications will affect firms ’ organizations, innovations and strategies by 2030, and, consequently, which societal areas will be chiefly affected. With this methodology, we aim at reaching experts ’ consensus to gain fresh insights and assess the likelihood about the future of the technology. This is a relevant issue, as blockchain technology applications cover a wide spectrum of areas. Blockchain can be applied vertically within an industry ( e.g. disrupting its supply chain ) or horizontally across different industries or within one companies ( e.g. modifying the internal structures and the modus operandi of the different company functions ). Given the number of electric potential applications and the complexity of the technology, stakeholders are divided into skeptics, who believe the technology is still excessively immature to become a paradigm in the near future, and enthusiasts, who alternatively believe that this group initiation will disrupt many industries and wholly switch commercial enterprise models and people ’ sulfur behaviors, like internet did during the 90s .
The literature on blockchain is besides widely fragmented. Different works have investigated possible blockchain applications within specific domains, such as finance [ 6 – 8 ], logistics [ 9 ], healthcare [ 10, 11 ] and education [ 12 ]. however, a holistic set about on possible blockchain-enabled future scenarios is hush missing. To our cognition, the entirely contribution in this direction is the one by White [ 13 ], who explores blockchain as a reservoir of disruptive invention entirely with regard to the business field. We depart from his function to adopt a much wide perspective in this report. In fact, our aim is to obtain a deep understand on how the adoption of this technology in Europe will lead to changes over multiple dimensions, ranging from business to culture and society, policy and rule, economy and engineering. frankincense, our research aims at exploring if a convergence between the two divergent perspectives on blockchain can be found, bringing together experts presently working on blockchain projects to explore the potential changes that the technology will bring to the society by 2030 .
Our discipline outlines an overall agreement among experts that the blockchain engineering will have a deep impact on multiple dimensions. In the near future people will probably start using and exploit the blockchain technology likely, without in truth knowing how the engineering behind works, in the lapp way as they send emails today, ignoring how the digital architecture that allows to exchange bytes of data works. policy makers and governments will play a crucial character in this obedience, by enabling productivity boosts and competitive gains from the companies operating under their jurisdictions. As such, a mean and concerted relationship between industrial actors and regulative bodies will be extremely authoritative and auspicial. To this aim, it will be of key importance for all players to understand the actual competitive advantage that blockchain can bring to their own industry and market .
This work aims at contributing to the raising blockchain literature by offering a holistic view on possible blockchain-enabled future scenarios in Europe, and to investigate which of the proposed scenarios is more likely to occur. As widely agreed by the academician literature, technological developments dictate the travel rapidly and footstep at which societies change [ 14 ]. Under this assumption, technical forecast appears to be a method of cardinal importance to understand “ ex-ante ” the potential development of technological changes, and their shock on unlike social aspects [ 15 ]. Foreseeing future technological trends could help society in understanding possible future scenarios, therefore contributing to a better cognition of the raw prototype our society is heading towards. The work is structured as follows. section 2 provides an overview on the main inquiry streams upon which this exercise is based. segment 3 presents the methodology. Results are described in Section 4 and Section 5 concludes the work .

2 Background literature

2.1 The blockchain technology

As defined by Crosby et aluminum. [ 3 ] a blockchain can be conceptualized as a shared and decentralized ledger of transactions. This chain grows as newly blocks ( i.e. read transactions or digital events ) are appended to it endlessly [ 16, 17 ]. Each transaction in the daybook must be confirmed by the majority of the participants in the system [ 3, 18 – 21 ]. This means for the community to verify the truthfulness of the newly objet d’art of information and to keep the blockchain copies synchronized between all the nodes ( i.e. between all the participants to the network ) in such a way that everybody agrees which is the chain of blocks to follow [ 19 ]. therefore, when a client executes a transaction ( e.g. when it sends some prize to another customer ), it broadcasts the transaction encrypted with a specific proficiency to the stallion network, so that all users in the organization receive a notification of the transaction in a few seconds. At that consequence, the transaction is “ unconfirmed ”, since it has not however been validated by the community. Once the users verify the transaction with a work called mine, a raw block is added to the chain. normally, the miner ( i.e. the drug user participating to the verification process ) receives a reward under the shape of virtual coins, called cryptocurrencies. Examples of cryptocurrencies are Bitcoins, Ether, Stellar Lumens and many others. virtual coins can then be used on the blockchain platform to transfer measure between users [ 17 – 19 ] .
Thanks to a combination of mathematics and cryptography, the transactions between users ( i.e. exchange of data and value ), once verified by the network and added to the range, are “ about ” unmodifiable and can be considered true with a reasonable horizontal surface of confidence [ 17, 19, 22 ]. These attributes of the engineering make it highly effective in transferring value between users, solving the problem of believe and thus potentially eliminating the want of a central authority ( e.g. a bank ) that authorizes and certifies the transactions [ 7, 23, 24 ] .
The technology can be easily applied to form legally bind agreements among individuals. The digitalize asset, which is the fundamental asset of the condense, is called keepsake. A nominal can be a digitalize contribution of a company, a well as a real estate property or a car. Through the set up of chic contracts ( i.e. digitalized contracts between two parties ), the blockchain engineering allows users to freely trade digital tokens, and consequently to trade their subordinate physical assets without the need of a central authority to certify the transaction ( OECD, 2020 ) .

2.2 Blockchain technology applications

The academician literature has investigated a wide range of possible blockchain applications within particular domains, such as finance [ 6 – 8 ], logistics [ 9 ], healthcare [ 10, 11 ] and education [ 12 ] .
As mentioned, one of the undoubted advantages of the blockchain engineering is the hypothesis to overcome the problem of reliance while transferring value [ 25 ]. not amazingly, the technology seems to find more applications in markets where mediation is presently high, like the fiscal sector, and in particular the FinTech sector, that has recently experienced a consistent make-over thanks to the dispersion of digital technologies [ 7, 26, 27 ]. The execution of the blockchain technology in the fiscal markets could provide investors and entrepreneurs with raw tools to successfully exchange value and capitals without relying on central authorities, ideally solving the problem of trust. This is among the reasons why many observers believe that the blockchain would become a electric potential mainstream fiscal engineering in the future [ 28 ]. Blockchain represents an initiation able to completely remodel our current fiscal system, breaking the old paradigm requiring trusted centralized parties [ 6 – 8 ]. With new blockchain-based automated forms of peer-to-peer lend, individuals having limited or no access to ball fiscal services could gain access to basic fiscal services previously reserved to individuals with certify fiscal records [ 29 ]. indeed, blockchain engineering can provide prize across multiple dimensions, by decreasing information asymmetries and reducing related transactional costs [ 30 ]. initial coin offerings ( ICOs ) represent one of the most successful blockchain-based applications for financing which has been presently developed. virtual currencies like Bitcoins can disruptively change the way in which players active voice in the clientele of financing modern ventures operate [ 7, 30 – 33 ]. Through an ICO, a party in want of new capital offers digital stocks ( named token ) to the populace. These digital tokens will then be used by investors to pay the future products developed by the finance company [ 30, 34, 35 ]. ICOs represents a disruptive instrument : entrepreneurs can now finance their ventures without intermediaries and consequently lower the cost of the capital raised [ 31, 36 ]. however, some threats coming from the technology adoption can besides be identified, as blockchain can besides lead to higher risks related to the lower level of control intrinsically connected to the engineering, particularly in the encase of asymmetrical information between the parties involved .
Disintermediation plays a key character in the healthcare sector as good, where blockchain has recently found numerous applications. indeed, many players presently need to exchange a huge come of information to efficaciously manage the solid sector : from hospitals, to physicians, to patients. The ability to trustfully exchange data and information becomes of undoubted value in this context [ 10, 11 ]. It should not be unmanageable to envision blockchain applications in other fields as well. In every sector in which information, measure, or goods are supposed to flow between parties, blockchain can enable a trustful connection between the players, with the need of a cardinal soundbox entrusting the transaction. Within supply chain, it can increase security and traceability of goods [ 9, 37 ]. Within education, it can help in certifying students ’ acquired skills, reducing, for exemplar, degree fraud [ 12 ]. To conclude, a recent solve from Lumineau et alabama. [ 38 ] highlights possible implications of the technology in the way collaborations are ruled and executed, shading light on modern organizational paradigm. indeed, the authors show how the intrinsically diverse nature of the technology could strongly affect organizational outcomes, heavily influencing and modifying ( possibly improving ) the direction in which different entities collaborate and collaborate .

4 Results

In order to provide a more effective and structure analysis of the results, we first report the final examination compendious table of the Delphi view and then describe the insights obtained from the analysis. It has to be noticed that table 5 reports quantitative data only, while during the survey qualitative data were collected ampere well. In presenting the results of this research, both quantitative and qualitative data are used to provide the best potential picture of what the blockchain-based future will look like. Alongside with standard statistics, we build on qualitative insights obtained during the interviews carried on with experts .
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Table 5.

Quantitative data obtained during the two rounds of surveys. hypertext transfer protocol : //doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0258995.t005 first, it is interesting to analyze which projections, out of the initial 20, reached a significant consensus ( IQR < 1.5 after the two rounds of the surveys ) and were given a high probability of occurrence by the experts. We can summarize the findings in this sphere around three major axes : efficiency, security, and initiation . By 2030, it will be easier, faster and leaner to exchange value and data among users, institutions and countries. efficiency will boost and uncover invention electric potential within companies and societies if these latter will be able to exploit such a modern opportunity. Policies will be a necessary pre-requisite for companies to be able to build a competitive edge globally. From this perspective, the capability of central governments to spur initiation with tend and flexible regulations will be a winder driver in explaining the ex-post productiveness differential among companies belonging to different countries. From the interview with an investment banker part of the BPCE French group ( one of the largest banks in France ), it emerged how efficiency is much hampered by the miss of an evenly efficient rule. To provide the proofreader with an interest exemplar, in 2018, Natixis, the international corporate and investment banking, asset management, indemnity and fiscal services arm of BPCE, entered the Marco Polo consortium, an enterprise hold to provide a newly conceived deal and supply chain finance platform, leveraging Application Programming Interfaces ( APIs ) and blockchain engineering. many other leading banks joined the consortium vitamin a well. however, as highlighted by the investing banker, the independent confining factor of the consortium, strongly hampering its efficiency and ability to provide a competitive edge, was the “ old-style ” bureaucracy linked to it. Although transactions were in principle to be executed smoothly, a bulk of legal paperwork was required to approve them formally. In this case, it appears apparent that engineering frequently runs faster than policy, systematically lowering its potential. interestingly, this view is besides shared by regulative bodies. An feel lawyer and notary, besides extremity of a panel of experts elected by the italian government to define the national scheme on blockchain, highlighted that, sometimes, regulators working on blockchain-related policies are trying to adapt existing regulations to the new substitution class. Due to the intrinsically unlike nature of the engineering, this could represent a wrong approach. At the same time, building a modern fixed of policies from scratches could represent a challenge task. From this perspective, projections 4 and 5 confirm this insight : policy and engineering should come hand in hand to synergically boost productivity. The three projections reached consensus after the two rounds and were assigned a high probability of occurrence. Overall, it is discernible that regulative aspects linked to the adoption of this new technology shall not be underestimated . As previously mentioned, security, and specifically cybersecurity, is another property around which blockchain could bring reproducible advantages, as projections 3, 10, 11 and 15 suggest. On this specific aspect, we interviewed a plan drawing card of the World Economic Forum who previously worked for the United Nations for more than ten years. She dealt specifically with digital regulations, justice, and cybersecurity, and in the last three years before the interview, she specifically worked on blockchain implications and how the engineering could be implemented in existing ecosystems. Thanks to her experience in the domain, she clearly explained how the blockchain represents a meaningful technology to avoid cyberattacks to sensitive data and digital files. In her opinion, the avoidance of a individual point of failure is the chief reason behind a possible blockchain adoption over the next years, since cyberattacks are becoming more frequent and dangerous and associate costs for companies are exponentially increasing ( e.g. 2020 has been a record class for cyber attacks ). consequently, companies will be increasingly investing in distribute ledgers as a form of eventuality budget to lower the cybersecurity risk and its relate cost. Given the centrality of data in today ’ sulfur businesses, serious attacks and loss of data could represent a good terror to business long-run sustainability . The third gear relevant aspect on which blockchain will have a strong impingement is, not surprisingly, initiation. Although regulation could represent a non-negligible specify agent, experts foresee many sectors to be impacted by the technology borrowing. For case, the fiscal sector could be heavily affected by this raw paradigm. Particularly, companies ’ capital structures and their strategic interconnect with business models will drive a differential competitive power. Most likely, enterprises will have to rethink their occupation models to account for the hypothesis to digitize/tokenize their assets ( Projections 8 and 18 ). The capability in flexibly adapting their serve offerings to the new opportunity and the ability to raise, and re-invest, new capitals will shape the global competition landscape across different industrial sectors and geographies. From one side, blockchain will enable new strategic decisions, from the early side, it will be of fundamental importance to build technical capabilities to enable these decisions. The underlying technology behind transactions, fairness offer and equity share transfers will most likely be the blockchain ( Projections 13 and 16 ). Disintermediation and the ability to exchange value, information, and data trustfully without a cardinal authority will enable a new way of fund and cooperation on open-source projects ( Projection 19 ). Most likely, people will refer to blockchain systems as they now refer to browsers such as Chrome, Firefox or Internet Explorer. many blockchains are already available and are constantly improved and developed, and it is foreseeable that this will remain the case in the future. Users will barely need to know the characteristics that a blockchain provides to choose the most desirable one for their commercial enterprise and purposes. Blockchain-based systems will require new skills and cognition that developers and engineers will need to develop. big efforts will be needed to make the blockchain more and more user friendly and attractive for those who just want to benefit from the immutability, traceability, and security system that it intrinsically brings. At the time of the compose and in argumentation with the Abernathy and Utterback model [ 53 ] many players are presently investing and innovating on blockchain to provide services that will satisfy the new market needs . The opportunity for people to deal freely will in fact generate opportunities that were unforeseeable ahead. Self-enforcing smart contracts ( Projection 20 ) will let parties to buy and sell products or to rent them with pay-for-use schemes in an automated way, the digitization of shares and assets will allow companies to raise capital in new ways, without the motivation to rely on banks, venture capitals or traditional IPOs. indeed, it is important to understand how the digitization of assets can challenge existing investments and the fund industry represented by traditional secret fairness firms and banks. Blockchain could allow the creation of platforms for the issue of traditional fiscal products on a tokenized nature, making it easier, more transparent and cheaper to manage and access these tools for everyone, including both individual savers and SMEs. Two different types of companies can and will operate in the market : those which have blockchain at their kernel since their foundation, and those which have ( or will have ) to embark in a digital transformation process to reconvert themselves into blockchain-based enterprises. In both cases, companies are investing to get a competitive advantage over competitors, betting on the technology that is promising to reduce costs and increase efficiency. once a prevailing design in intersection and services will be achieved, companies that took a different way will likely exit the market, letting firms following the dominant design to gain grocery store shares . To conclude and to conceptualize the insights we obtained from both quantitative and qualitative data, we derived four scenarios that we organized in a matrix framework, reported in table 6. The framework was built around two main dimensions : on one hand the digitization of assets, and on the other hand the deepen in business models. The proposed framework leads to the identification of four quadrants : scenarios which envision both the digitization of assets and commercial enterprise model changes and scenarios which do not foresee neither of these two changes. These four independent development scenarios were completed and analyzed in the light of the conducted interviews and of the quantitative and qualitative data gathered through the Delphi view. Each quadrant was given a label : internal Processes, Flow-less Coopetition, Suppliers Potential and Investment Opportunities. When discussing the quadrants, we try to highlight which of the three improvement areas previously identified ( efficiency, security, and initiation ) are exploited in the discourse scenario . thumbnail

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Table 6.

Final scenarios. hypertext transfer protocol : //doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0258995.t006 To derive relevant insights from the framework, it is utilitarian to start from the bed left quadrant, Internal Processes. This name was chosen to highlight the absence of any particular development for the party at a strategic tied through the blockchain adoption. In this case, it is conceivable to use the technology to incrementally improve firms ’ operation performances. Blockchain ’ second main benefits are to increase traceability of transactions and guarantee their immutability. All these characteristics adopted on today ’ south processes will result in an automation of act business functions, such as settlements and reconciliation, customs clearance, fleshy payments, invoice, and documentation, boosting operational efficiency and cost performance. In this scenario, security system and efficiency will see a coherent improvement .
The top-left scenario shows rather a different perspective, by considering a broader adoption of blockchain that generates new accommodative clientele models among different stakeholders, potentially even among competitors. This is why it is called Flow-Less Coopetition. In this sheath, the benefits of blockchain will help at generating a more democratic ecosystem in terms of information. Those actors that base their business models on information asymmetry, having access to key information before others, will need to revisit their occupation models if they want to stay competitive. It is of interest to notice how bad fiscal institutions, traditionally competing, are now exploring likely collaboration models in the light of this new engineering ( e.g. JP Morgan Chase, Morgan Stanley ). This quadrant envisages an progress in all three blockchain-enabled dimensions : efficiency, security system, and invention .
The bottom-right scenario, called Suppliers Potential, highlights how, thanks to the digitization that blockchain allows, many actors could jump in the market providing solutions to those companies that would like to benefit from the advantages of digitizing their assets, but are lacking means and competences to internally develop them. Those companies would preferably outsource the development of blockchain-based solutions. For this rationality, the potential for the creation of a lucrative B2B grocery store exists. tied though there are already protocols that are leaders in the market ( Hyperledger Fabric and Ethereum ), new solutions with different configurations will probably be needed to support different industries and use case solutions. As for the first scenario, besides in this context efficiency and security will be chiefly affected .
ultimately, the last scenario ( Investment Opportunities ) focuses on the combination between the complete digitization of the assets of a company and the newfangled occupation models that this major change could generate. As already mentioned in previous paragraph, industries are experimenting many ways to facilitate the access to capital. Since the explosion of ICOs in 2017, new and easier ways to access capital have become possible and accomplishable. however, due to their unregulated nature, ICOs silent deliver numerous electric potential threats ( Projection 14 did not reach consensus ). For this reason, other solutions, such as STOs ( Security Token Offerings ), are on the manner of being tested. Bringing a higher degree of freedom to investments will allow companies to receive funds from diverse and non-traditional investors, and it will besides boost investments by private individuals into early-stage companies. efficiency and invention will be at the kernel of this last scenario .

5 Conclusions

In this paper, we studied different blockchain-based projections and we assessed their likelihood and impact thanks to the engagement of a pool of experts. We built our findings around three dimensions ( efficiency, security, and invention ) and we derived four scenarios based on experts ’ shared vision. Being the current literature widely fragmented, we believe this research represents a useful start for conceptualizing blockchain likely and implications. While many research papers focus on blockchain particular applications or general reviews of the department of state of the art, we try to propose a mix model build on different typologies of insights and analyses. We merged quantitative observations derived from standard statistics with qualitative insights obtained directly from experts ’ opinions .
overall, we believe our research can constitute a utilitarian tool for many practitioners involved in the initiation ecosystem and for managers of small, medium and large enterprises to look at future possible scenarios in a more intellectual and systematic way. From one side, a company ’ second management can use these forecasts as a originate point for the implementation of newly strategies. As previously highlighted, blockchain offers endless possibilities. however, the ability to focus on activities and projects with a cocksure come back on investment will be crucial. first, managers will face the choice between insourcing or outsourcing the technological development of the platform. While the erstwhile choice ensures higher tractability, it besides generates high development and maintenance costs. Companies which will identify blockchain as their congress of racial equality serve will be entitled to adopt this first scheme, while the majority of the enterprises will credibly gain adept competitive advantages adopting Blockchain as a Service ( BaaS ) solution. This latter approach will boost companies ’ performances, by enhancing new servicing offerings equally well as a newfangled degree of operational efficiency, without carrying the burden and costs of technological complexity .
As mentioned, we believe this inquiry provides useful insights for policy makers equally well. The adoption of blockchain represents a enormous technological change bringing along concern and tangible opportunities. however, different threats can be anticipate. Central authorities do not lone solve the problem of believe in certifying measure transactions. They besides provide substantive supervision on the process itself, for exemplar ensuring that information asymmetry is kept at fair levels between parties engaging in any sort of contracts, specially in the fiscal world. Letting people directly exchange respect between themselves or allowing companies to easily raise capitals can boost fiscal efficiency, but besides provides board for fraud and ambiguous behaviours. today, companies which are concern in raising capitals both through innovative tools such as crowdfunding or through traditional entities such as public fiscal markets, have the duty to disclose relevant information and normally go through a bass action of due diligence. Regulators should ensure the lapp level of master on companies that will raise money through Initial Coin Offerings or other sort of blockchain-enabled offerings. We believe that the first gear step towards a fair regulation of this newly born technology is the agreement of its foreseeable impact on the club in the cheeseparing future. This work aims to be a valued enabler in this steering. As highlighted in the torso of this research, it appears fundamental for policy makers, regulators and government to deeply understand the potential upsides and threats of this raw engineering, and to correctly navigate the different possible blockchain-enabled scenarios. The successful cooperation between companies ’ management and regulators could enable significant productiveness shifts in the economic tissue of many countries. Failing in efficiently grasping and enhancing these new substitution class from a regulative position could result into a heavy deficit for the competitive edge and productivity of the industrial sectors of the governments ’ respective countries, potentially leading to macroeconomic differentials in productiveness.

To conclude, this inquiry could be a utilitarian character for orienting into this complex and active environment, reducing the sensed uncertainty associated to such a new engineering. Thanks to the experts ’ advice, it is now possible to have a clearer video of the development of blockchain technologies and of the opportunities and threats that the engineering will generate. Certain limitations and characteristics of this learn must be considered to correctly and efficaciously take advantage of its results. The main objective of this exploit was to examine the most interrupt aspects that are probably to occur in Europe by 2030, with a especial focus on how the engineering will facilitate finance, reduce costs, increase transparency and, in general, influence firms ’ business models. From this steer of see, the objectives and assumptions presented at the beginning of this newspaper can be considered as in full achieved, but farther works exploring other industries and geographies are required to get an organic reason of the new enhanced paradigm .
Our research lone paves the way for a better sympathy of what a blockchain-based future will look like, as the differences between industries are excessively big to be analyzed in a single work. Organizations and businesses in the fiscal universe are systematically changing, but it will be necessary besides for companies belonging to different sectors to wholly rethink their core activities. From this position, we believe promote works are needed in these directions. We hope researchers will use and explode our framework to further qualify and meticulously describe the new potential paradigm around the multiple dimensions examined in this work .

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