Susan B. Anthony dollar

United States dollar coin depicting Susan B. Anthony

The Susan B. Anthony dollar is a United States dollar coin minted from 1979 to 1981 when output was suspended due to hapless public adoption, and then again in 1999. Intended as a surrogate for the larger Eisenhower dollar, the newly smaller one-dollar coin went through examination of respective shapes and compositions, but all were opposed by the peddle machine industry, a mighty anteroom affecting coin legislation. ultimately, a turn planchet with an eleven-sided inner molding was chosen for the smaller dollar. The original design for the smaller dollar mint depicted an allegorical representation of Liberty on the obverse, but organizations and individuals in Congress called for the mint to depict a very charwoman. respective proposals were submitted, and social reformer Susan B. Anthony was selected as the design subject. The overrule design of the Eisenhower dollar was retained, an engrave of the Apollo 11 mission insignia showing an eagle land on the Moon. Both sides of the coin, vitamin a well as the jilted Liberty design, were created by Frank Gasparro, the Chief Engraver of the United States Mint.

One and a one-half billion coins were struck in anticipation of considerable populace demand, but the Anthony dollar was ill received, in part because of confusion caused by its similarity in size and metallic composition to the quarter. Despite its inadequate reception, the coins finally began seeing consumption in vending machines and mass transit systems, depleting the excess by the late 1990s. In 1997, Congress passed a law authorizing the coinage of a fresh gold-colored one-dollar coin depicting Sacagawea, but production could not begin cursorily enough to meet demand. As a makeshift meter, until the newly Sacagawea dollar mint could be issued, the Anthony dollar was struck again in 1999 after an eighteen-year suspension ; the series was retired the follow year. especial coins for sale to collectors were struck in proof eat up through the play of the Susan B. Anthony dollar, and some mint variations are valuable to collectors. however, most circulation strikes remained in government stockpiles for respective years after mint, so many of the coins are available in uncirculated grades, and the agio over face value is minimal .

backdrop [edit ]

One side of a coin, depicting the bust of a manOne side of a coin, depicting an eagle on the surface of the moon The Eisenhower dollar was authorized by a bill signed into law on December 31, 1970. In the early 1960s, as the price of silver medal rose, Treasury Department vaults were depleted of silver dollars by the populace. No ash grey dollars had been minted in the United States since 1935, and a dearth developed in the Western United States, particularly in areas in which gambling was common. As a resultant role, Congress voted to authorize the production of 45 million new flatware Peace dollars on August 3, 1964. however, the motion drew potent condemnation from critics and the public who believed that the issue of the coins was a waste of resources and influenced by special interests, and that they would be quickly removed from circulation. A sum of 316,076 1964-D Peace dollars were struck before production was ordered suspended. The coins were melted soon afterwards, and the Coinage Act of 1965, enacted on July 23, 1965, forbade all production of dollar coins for a period of five years. On May 12, 1969, the Joint Commission on the Coinage, a dialog box of 24 individuals organized by the 1965 Coinage Act, recommended resumption of dollar coin production following a study conducted by a Congressional undertaking push. On October 1 and 3, 1969, a hear before the U.S. House of Representatives discussed the proposed legislation to authorize the coin, in a copper-nickel invest musical composition, with the 1.5-inch ( 38 millimeter ) same diameter of the former flatware dollars. A provision was added requiring the coin to depict former President Dwight D. Eisenhower, who had died earlier that year, on the obverse and a invention “ emblematic of the emblematic eagle of Apollo 11 landing on the moon ” on the revoke. [ a ] President Richard Nixon signed the poster into law on December 31, 1970. Both the obverse and rearward designs were created by Frank Gasparro, the Chief Engraver of the United States Mint. As with previous dollar coins, the new Eisenhower dollar proved unpopular with the populace, and very few of the coins were found in circulation. In 1976, the Research Triangle Institute conducted a survey of United States coinage. Among early things, they recommended the one-half dollar mint, which by then saw declining consumption, be eliminated from production, and the size of the dollar be reduced. Their report read in part :

A conveniently-sized dollar mint would significantly broaden the capabilities of consumers for cash transactions, specially with machines. Members of the automatic trade industry have expressed a solid matter to in a smaller dollar, indicating their willingness to adapt their machinery to its use .

Numismatic historian David L. Ganz suggested that Eisenhower, a Republican, was chosen as a means of balancing the one-half dollar, depicting Democrat John F. Kennedy. In a 1977 composition, he agreed with the findings of the institute, suggesting that both coins should be eliminated ; the half dollar production ceased wholly, and the dollar replaced by one of smaller diameter and with a different design. Treasury officials desired the modest dollar mint as a cost-saving measure ; Mint Director Stella Hackel estimated that replacing half of the issue dollar bills with small dollars would save $ 19 million ( $ 78.9 million today ) in annual production costs. [ bel ]

Design history [edit ]

Liberty invention [edit ]

The Mint began training for the reduced-diameter dollar mint in 1976. Although no legislation had yet been introduced, Treasury officials anticipated a positive reception from Congress, and the coin had near solid support from the Mint and the vending machine industry, an influential lobby in the area of coin design and universe. In 1977, Treasury Secretary Michael Blumenthal publicly endorsed a smaller dollar mint and suggested that an allegorical theatrical performance of Liberty would be a suitable subjugate for the coin .
One side of a coin design, depicting the bust of a woman representing LibertyOne side of a coin design, depicting an eagle flying above a mountaintop Gasparro ‘s master design for the obverse and reverse of the coin which ultimately became the Susan B. Anthony dollar head Engraver Gasparro was tasked with creating a design for the proposed coin. His obverse design depicted a flop of Liberty, while his turn back depicted a soaring eagle. The break was pictured along with a pole, atop which sat a phrygian detonator, a symbol used to represent exemption. Gasparro ‘s Liberty design was based on a similar obverse that he created for a 1969 American Numismatic Association convention decoration. The turn back, depicting an eagle flying above a batch against the rising Sun, was primitively created by Gasparro in 1967 for a proposed commemorative half dollar. Describing the turn back design, Gasparro stated that it was meant to symbolize “ a new day being born ”. The design was reviewed by the Commission of Fine Arts, and in an April 29, 1976, letter, Commission member J. Carter Brown praised the purpose :

I believe this would be a superb plan for United States Coinage, rooted as it is in a big tradition, being based on the ‘ Liberty Cap penny ‘ of 1794, following Augustin Dupré ‘s Libertas Americana decoration commemorating Saratoga and Yorktown ( 1777–1781 ) .

A bill to reduce the diameter of the dollar from 1.5 inches ( 38 millimeter ) to 1.043 inches ( 26.5 millimeter ) and the weight from 22.68 grams to 8.5 grams was introduced to the House of Representatives on May 1, 1978. The poster was introduced to the Senate on May 3, and the proposed weight was reduced from 8.5 grams to 8.1 grams. The Mint conducted experiments involving eight-, ten-, eleven- and thirteen-sided coins, but it was decided that the dollar would be beat, as dearly-won modifications would be required to update vending machinery to accept other shapes. alternatively, the bill prescribed an eleven-sided inner margin, which was intended to aid designation by view and by feel for the visually handicapped .

survival of Susan B. Anthony [edit ]

Treasury officials formally recommended Gasparro ‘s design, which they referred to as a “ overhaul translation of the authoritative Liberty design ”. On May 3, 1978, Wisconsin ‘s William Proxmire introduced legislation in the Senate which was identical to the Treasury proposal, except for mandating a design which was altered to social reformer Susan B. Anthony in place of the allegorical Liberty. On May 15, Representatives Mary Rose Oakar and Patricia Schroeder introduced similar legislation to the House of Representatives. Anthony was besides recommended by members of the National Organization for Women, the Congresswomen ‘s Caucus, the National Women ‘s political Caucus and the League of Women Voters. In support of the proposed legislation, the League addressed a letter to Walter E. Fauntroy, chair of the Subcommittee on Historic Preservation and Coinage, reading in separate :

The League believes that the time has come, and is indeed long by, for the likeness of a big american woman to be placed on a denomination of U.S. currentness. We believe powerfully that the likeness should be that of an actual womanhood and not that of an complex number or symbolic figure. Susan B. Anthony contributed boundlessly to the progress of human dignity in this nation. It is wholly appointment and allow that her memory be honored through this measure .

In accession, officials tallied suggestions sent to the Mint by the general populace as to the submit of the dollar coin, and Susan B. Anthony had received the most support .A drawing of one side of a coin, depicting the profile of a womanA drawing of one side of a coin, depicting the profile of a woman Two drawings created by Gasparro as proposed designs for the Susan B. Anthony dollar obverse Gasparro began work on his Susan B. Anthony design in June 1978, before the legislation was authorized by Congress. He enlisted the aid of a friend in conducting research on Anthony, which he felt was necessary before creating the design. He referenced approximately six different images while creating the portrayal of Anthony, but it was based largely on merely two. Gasparro created several different designs before receiving final blessing. One of his portraits, depicting Anthony at age 28, was shown to Anthony ‘s great-niece, Susan B. Anthony III, who rejected it on the grounds that it unnecessarily “ fancify ” her great-aunt, and she criticized another design depicting Anthony at age 84, which she believed made her appear besides old. Gasparro made respective alterations with the captive to depict her at age 50, at the acme of her influence as a social reformer, but no photograph of Anthony during that time period are known to exist. He finally received approval after modification, later stating his impression that he had accurately portrayed Anthony. initially, Gasparro expected that Congress would retain his soaring eagle change by reversal design to accompany the Susan B. Anthony obverse. however, a belated amendment introduced by Utah Senator Jake Garn altered the legislation to maintain the Apollo 11 design in use on the Eisenhower dollar reverse. The bill was approved by Congress and signed into law by President Jimmy Carter on October 10, 1978, and production of Eisenhower dollars ceased during that year. After he signed the bill into jurisprudence, Carter issued a statement, saying in separate that he was confident that “ this act—and the new dollar—will well improve our neologism system deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as cutting Government coin production costs ”. He went on to declare his blessing of the decisiveness to depict Anthony on the coins :

I am particularly pleased that the fresh dollar mint will—for the first time in history—bear the prototype of a capital american charwoman. The liveliness of Susan B. Anthony exemplifies the ideals for which our nation stands. The ‘Anthony dollar ‘ will symbolize for all american women the accomplishment of their inalienable right to vote. It will be a changeless admonisher of the continuing clamber for the equality of all Americans .

Design criticism [edit ]

A logo depicting an eagle upon the surface of the moon Numismatists criticized the pair of Susan B. Anthony ‘s portrayal with a design based on the Apollo 11 insignia.

Gasparro regarded the Anthony invention as the most important of his career. Remarking on the public perception of the mint, Gasparro related that “ it ‘s become part of a sociable movement. This new dollar ‘s more than a coin ; it ‘s an issue. ” The decision to use a portrayal of Susan B. Anthony in place of the allegorical Liberty was met with criticism by most numismatists, who believed that the Liberty blueprint had army for the liberation of rwanda greater aesthetic deserve. Art critic and numismatist Cornelius Vermeule was highly critical of the obverse design substitution, arsenic well as the decision to continue consumption of the Apollo 11 plan. Vermeule noted that although Eisenhower ‘s government established the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Anthony had no connection to the Moon land or the U.S. space program. Commenting on the obverse and rearward pair, he stated his belief that it was “ a hasty marriage and a bad one ”. Although he believed that Gasparro ‘s Anthony design was well executed, sculptor Robert Weinman criticized the decision to depict Anthony. Concerned about the possibility of other groups seeking theatrical performance on the neologism in response to its passage, Weinman characterized the Susan B. Anthony dollar legislation as a “ billboard or campaign button approach to a national mint ” .

reception [edit ]

Two coins being shown together as a comparison of their size The similarity in size and material composition between the raw Susan B. Anthony dollar ( left ) and the Washington quarter ( right field ) caused immediate confusion in transactions. The beginning Susan B. Anthony dollars were struck at the Philadelphia Mint on December 13, 1978. first strikes at the Denver and San Francisco Mints followed on January 9, 1979 and January 29, respectively. Mint officials feared that the coins would be hoarded upon release, so they ordered the universe of a reserve consist of 500 million coins anterior to the passing date in July 1979. The dollars all bore a mint distinguish denoting their place of lineage : ‘P ‘ for the Philadelphia Mint, ‘D ‘ for the Denver Mint and ‘S ‘ for the San Francisco Mint. The Anthony dollar was the first coin to bear a ‘P ‘ mint marker since the Jefferson nickel issued during World War II ; other coins struck there were left without a mint crisscross to note their locate of origin. In 1980, the ‘P ‘ mint mark was added to all early circulate coins, except the cent, struck in Philadelphia. The Treasury Department, in cooperation with the Federal Reserve, undertook a $ 655,000 market campaign to educate bank employees and members of the public about the new mint, and the peddle industry engaged in a $ 100 million attempt to retrofit machines to accept the coins. Despite the market attempts, the coin received an overwhelmingly negative reception from the populace. Less than two millimeters in diameter larger than the quarter and mint in the like copper-nickel typography, the Susan B. Anthony dollar was wide confused for that denomination in transactions. Mint Director Hackel noted the dispute in system of weights and design between the two coins and expressed her impression that the dollar would finally find prefer with the public, suggesting that the coin would become “ accustomed to the american people in time ”. In the months following its free, complaints mounted and public transportation and many establishments throughout the area began refusing to accept them in payment. On July 13, 1979, California Representative Jerry Lewis introduced a poster to the House of Representatives with the intent to increase the size of the coin to aid identification. Discussing the bill, which was never passed, Lewis remarked that the Anthony dollar had come to be known derisively as the “ carter quarter ”, due to its size and association with the President. In total, 757,813,744 dollar coins date 1979 were struck for circulation at the Philadelphia, Denver and San Francisco Mints. Demand remained first gear through 1980, and the circulation strikes for that year totaled 89,660,708. due to its persistent unpopularity, output of Anthony dollars for circulation was suspended, and 9,742,000 1981 dollars were struck across all three Mints entirely for sale to collectors ; this coinage marked the conclusion of production. At the close of production, the Treasury encountered a dilemma : the Mint struck a bombastic number of dollars in prediction of bang-up populace need, resulting in a excess of 520,000,000 coins in 1981. Melting the coins was impractical ; the monetary value of manufacture was approximately 2 cents, and the 98 cents earned from seignorage was applied to the national debt. Had the coins been melted, their seignorage would have been added to the debt. accordingly, the coins were placed in government memory, to be dispensed as needed. The coin ‘s design did have repercussions north of the frame ; when Canada introduced its new one-dollar coin in 1987, its dimensions were made alike so that vending machine specifications could be coarse between the two nations. [ 58 ] When the Baltimore, Maryland Metro Subway opened in 1984, it used the Susan B. Anthony dollar coin as tokens with which to buy tickets. It became the largest one drug user of Susan B. Anthony dollar coins in its history. [ 59 ]

1999 reissue [edit ]

The obverse of a coin depicting a woman dressed in eighteenth-century clothing After passage of the United States $ 1 Coin Act of 1997, the Mint struck traffic pattern coins, depicting Martha Washington and dated 1759, to test a more distinctive, gold-colored mint. Despite their unpopularity in transactions, Anthony dollars began to see heavy practice in over 9,000 stamp-dispensing machines situated in United States Postal Service buildings across the country beginning in the early 1990s. additionally, the coins last began to be used regularly with many mass-transit systems and vending-machine operations. versatile propositions were discussed in Congress since the concluding dollars were produced in 1981, but no action was taken to issue a fresh mint until the Treasury ‘s stores of Anthony dollars became depleted by the mid-1990s. In February 1996, the vaults totaled approximately 229,500,000 coins, but that act was reduced to approximately 133,000,000 by the end of 1997. Faced with the necessity of striking more Susan B. Anthony dollars to fill the need, the Treasury supported legislation authorizing a new dollar coin that would not be confused with the quarter. Legislation authorizing a dollar coin in a gold-colored composition and with a plain edge was introduced to the House and Senate in 1997, where it finally received approval with a provision calling for it to depict native American lead Sacagawea. On December 1, 1997, President Bill Clinton signed the 50 States commemorative Coin Program Act into police. The Act, which authorized the creation of the 50 State Quarters program, included a section entitled “ United States $ 1 Coin Act of 1997 ”. That segment formally authorized what became the Sacagawea dollar. Following passing of the act, a series of test strikes depicting Martha Washington were carried out to test versatile gold-colored alloys. Although the act provided for universe of the modern coin, it besides allowed for resumption of striking the Anthony design as a stop-gap measure until production began on the gold-colored dollar. Nearing depletion of Treasury stockpiles, on May 20, 1999, the U.S. Mint announced that production of the Susan B. Anthony dollar would resume. In total, 41,368,000 Anthony dollars date 1999 were struck for circulation at the Philadelphia and Denver mints. Proof strikes were carried out at the Philadelphia mint ; no 1999 dollars were struck at the San Francisco mint. The Anthony design was formally retired in 2000, when the newfangled Sacagawea dollar entered production .

Collecting [edit ]

As few Susan B. Anthony dollars circulated, many remain available in uncirculated circumstance and are worth little above face respect. however, some date and mint mark varieties are relatively valuable. The 1981 coins, having been issued only to collectors, are valued above the other circulation strikes in the series. In addition, a long-familiar kind of the 1979 circulation strikes on which the date appears nearer to the rim commands a higher price than the regular emergence. All dates of the dollar besides exist in proof finish. The 1999 coins were sold as standalone proof strikes, rather than as function of a larger proof fix, as the 1979, 1980 and 1981 issues were offered. The 1999 proof was minted entirely at the Philadelphia Mint, and bears a ‘P ‘ mint crisscross, while all other proof Anthony dollars were minted at San Francisco and bear the ‘S ‘ of that Mint. Some 1979 and 1981 proof bear a mint score which was applied to the coinage dies with a different punch, causing them to have a more legible appearance. They are considered scarce and are valued well higher than normal proofread of the series .

See besides [edit ]

explanatory notes [edit ]

  1. ^ Gasparro ‘s alternate design depicted a less predaceous eagle, but after details were leaked to Congress, the bird was mandated to appear on the coin as it was depicted on the Apollo 11 insignia .
  2. ^ Although paper notes are less costly to print, a dollar coin is well more durable and requires less frequent successor .

Citations [edit ]

General bibliography [edit ]

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