About Good – A marking term describing a coin that is less than Good. merely the main features on the surfaces are visible. typically, peripheral inscription, date, stars, or other features are partially worn away. Abbreviated as AG and numerically assigned the count 3 .
About Uncirculated – A grade condition describing a coin that initially appears to be Uncirculated, but upon closer inspection a fiddling rub or friction can be seen. Abbreviated as AU. numeral equivalents associated with About Uncirculated are : AU-50, 53, 55, and 58, with AU-50 being the lowest grade and AU-58 being borderline Uncirculated .
Abrasion(s) – Area ( s ) of a coin where a alien object or another coin has displaced alloy in an abrade fashion. not the like as hairlines or udder marks.
Accolated – Overlapped impression, as with two or more portraits on the boldness of a coin. exemplar : The 1900 Lafayette commemorative silver dollar bears the accolated portraits of Washington and Lafayette .
Accumulation – A group of assorted and random coins, much a monetary hoard, not a coin collection. This term may besides refer to a group of a especial serial, date or type such as an collection of Walking Liberty half dollars .
Ace – Numismatic nickname for a $ 1 bill, particularly a $ 1 National Bank Note of the Original Series or the series of 1875 .
Adjectival Grading; Adjectival Grading System – The traditional rate organization employed until superseded by the numerical grade system. Coins in grades from the most wear ( Poor ) were described adjectivally in these progressive steps : Poor, Fair, Good, very good, Fine, Very Fine, extremely Fine, about Uncirculated, and Uncirculated. Modifiers such as “ choice ” and “ jewel ” were sometimes used to indicate an specially decent specimen within a class charge, such as Choice Extremely Fine or Gem Uncirculated .
Adjustment Marks – Small, straight ( never curved ) striations or file marks found on early United States coins. Caused during planchet preparation ( before striking ) by drawing a file across the coins to remove excess metal sol as to reduce the planchet to its proper system of weights. The leave is a series of parallel grooves .
Aesthetic Appeal – Term used to indicate the artistic or ocular sex appeal of a mint in addition to its numerical or technical grade. synonym : eye appeal .
AG, AG-3 – Designation for about Good .
Agricultural Wreath – A wreath motif created by James B. Longacre and used on the 1854 Type II gold dollar, 1854 $ 3 aureate coin, 1856 Flying Eagle penny, and other issues. Wreath of corn ( most big ), wheat, cotton, and tobacco—called a cereal wreath by Mint Director Snowden in his 1860 book, A description of Ancient and Modern Coins in the Cabinet Collection of the Mint of the United States. Called tobacco wreath by Edgar H. Adams, The Numismatist, July 1912, pp. 246-247 .
AGW (Actual Gold Weight) – An infrequently used term for the burden of pure gold that is in a coin, decoration or barroom. In contrast, the gross weight of a gold mint includes the weight of alloys .
Album Friction – Evidenced by a slight friction on a coin ’ randomness high points, alike to but not arsenic severe as album slide marks. When repeatedly removed and inserted into albums with well-defined slides, the slides can impart horizontal scratches if they touch the coin ’ s surface. To prevent this, carefully push the mint well into the hole so the slide does not touch it .
Album Slide Marks – Lines on the surface of a coin, normally latitude, caused by the plastic “ chute ” of a mint album .
Alchemy – The transformation of establish metals such as lead and mercury into gold ; practiced in historic times by versatile chemists, pretenders, etc .
Alloy – Copper and sometimes ash grey are mixed with gold to add military capability and lastingness to a mint, and the result metal is called an alloy. Coins made of pure amber are identical soft, and easily scratched, wear and damaged .
All-Seeing Eye – Eye motif, normally surrounded by glorious rays. Used on certain bull coins of the 1780s such as the 1783-1786 Nova Constellatio neologism, the 1783 Nova Constellatio silver patterns, the 1785-1786 Landscape-type Vermont coppers ( Ryder 2 through 8 ), and, in more modern times, the small-size $ 1 note ( included as region of a pyramid blueprint, no rays surrounding ) .
Almost Uncirculated – Another grading term for about Uncirculated .
Alteration – The meddle with a have of a coin ’ s surface such as the date, mintmark, etc. to give it the appearance of being another date, mintmark, or kind. An unethical and sometimes illegal commit .
Altered Surfaces – When the surfaces of a mint have been affected by cleaning or other processes resulting in it being less desirable to collectors .
Aluminum – An elemental metal. Aluminum was a cute metal in the 1850s, but by the 1860s came into limited habit to strike patterns equally well as delicacies for collectors. Aluminum tended to oxidize cursorily, forming a protective gray coat, which then stabilized and endures in many instances to the present sidereal day. In 1973 the Mint contemplated using aluminum for regular coinage of cents, since copper was rising sharply in price on the commercial market. About a million and a half Lincoln cents were struck with the date 1974, and some were given out as samples, but the alloy was never used for regular neologism .
American Auction Association – 1970s auction division of Bowers and Ruddy Galleries. This name was discontinued, and former catalogs bore the Bowers and Ruddy Galleries name .
American Eagle – A serial of bullion coins created by the U. S. Mint featuring a class of eagles on the reverse. The eloquent coins were introduced in 1986 in a $ 1 appellation. The gold coins were first produced in 1987 in 1/10, ¼, ½, and 1 ounce versions .
American Numismatic Association – A nonprofit educational organization founded in 1888, dedicated to encouraging the study and collect of money and relate items. The ANA helps people learn and explore the universe of money through a huge array of programs including education and outreach, museum, library, publications, conventions, and seminars. They are headquartered in Colorado Springs, Colorado. Read more about them at money.org .
American Numismatic Association Grading System – Adopted in 1977, the ANA Grading System was described in the script, Official ANA Grading Standards for United States Coins, and evaluated coins based upon the Sheldon scale for grading .
American Numismatic Association Hall of Fame – Pantheon and veranda located at the American Numismatic Association Headquarters, Colorado Springs, CO. Numismatists past and present who are deemed worthy and elected for the respect are enshrined by being included in the display, a highly desirable honor. The first honorees enshrined in 1969 were : Edgar H. Adams, George J. Bauer, Frank G. Duffield, Dr. George F. Heath, Edward T. Newell, Wayte Raymond, David C. Wismer, Howland Wood, and Farran Zerbe .
American Numismatic Association Headquarters – A.k.a. ANA. Headquartered at : North Cascade Avenue, Colorado Springs, CO, on the campus of Colorado College. Built in the 1960s on land leased for $ 1 per year for 100 years ( option of 100 years renewal ) from the college. Action center for executive, editorial, membership, museum, authentication, and other functions. focal sharpen for exhibits, seminars, other events .
American Numismatic Society – A museum and research establish devoted to the study of coins from all periods and cultures. They are headquartered in New York City, New York. Abbreviated as “ ANS. ”
ANA – An abbreviation for the “ American Numismatic Association. ”
ANACS – (American Numismatic Association Certification Service) – An authentication military service started by the ANA that later provided grade services. The ANA late sold the acronym and this service, which nowadays operates as a third-party scaling service .
ANACS Certificate – Issued by the ANA Certification Service, a written document of authenticity and/or grade that bears a unique phone number .
Ancients – A term for world coins struck circa 600 B.C. to circa 450 A.D .
Annealing – A process by which a die or planchet is heated and then cooled to soften the metallic element for die readiness or the fall of a coin .
Annular – Ring like, ring human body. Refers to a mint with a round perforation or hole at the center, certain convention cents of 1850 being examples .
Annulet – In heraldry and in numismatic descriptions, a little ring or related emblem as share of a blueprint .
ANS – An abbreviation for the “ american Numismatic Society. ”
Anvil Die – normally the rearward of the coin, the lower, stationary die. On some issues with outstanding problems, the obverse is used as the lower die. due to the physics of mint, the stationary lower-die impression is slightly better fall upon than the upper-die impression .
Arcade Tokens – Metallic tokens used in penny arcades, amusement emporiums, and relate places. sometimes bearing a denomination, these tokens could be used in seat of cents, nickels, quarters, or other coins in coin-operated devices .
Argentan – A variety show of “ german silver, ” an debase without argent, which contains a mix of nickel, tin, copper, and early metals .
Arms – In heraldry, on banknotes, and on coins and medals, the representation of a express, family, or other entity, often incorporating a shield with patterns and designs, indeed as to permit easy designation of that entity. Certain state copper coins, commemoratives, and other United States issues included arms of versatile states .
Arrow and Rays – Term referring to a design element on quarters and half dollars go steady 1853. The rays were removed the follow year due to striking difficulties created by the complicate design .
Arrows – Design component seen on many U.S. coins, most frequently in the eagle ’ sulfur left claw .
Arrows at Date – The arrows to the impart and right of the date on a coin. The Mint added these to the dies to indicate a weight addition or decrease .
Artificial Toning – Toning or patination applied to a mint by chemical, inflame, or other means to decrease its luminosity or magnificence and to give it the appearance of having acquired attractive colors over a long period of time. such coins are plentiful in the marketplace, including in certify holders, and a bang-up eye is needed to identify them .
Ask – The price that represents what a seller is uncoerced to accept for a particular coin topic and grad. This changes with market fluctuations. See besides : Bid ; Spread
Assay – To evaluate and calculate the purity of a metallic admixture .
Assay Bar, Assay Ingot – A orthogonal ( normally ) ingot or cake of ash grey or gold, produced by an assay agency ( see list ) and stamped with data, normally including the name of the assayer, system of weights, fineness ( purity ), metal, a serial number, and, sometimes, the date and market value .
Assay Office – A facility established by the federal government or by private individuals to receive and evaluate cherished metals, particularly amber, silver and copper. The government operated assay offices in Butte ( Montana ), New York City, Denver, and elsewhere. During the Gold Rush several assay offices did good business in California, including Kellogg & Humbert, Harris & Marchand, Justh & Hunter, Moffat & Co., and the United States Assay Office of Gold, among others .
Assayer – One who performs assays. position at the mint from 1792 ahead. Most assayers operated in the private sector, however, specially in the conduct of business in assay offices, mines, refineries, etc .
Athena – Goddess emblematic of Athens. Athena and her owl ( denoting wisdom ) are motifs on the 1915-S commemorative $ 50 aureate coins, beat and octangular formats, issued for the Panama-Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco .
Attributes – The components that determine a coin ’ randomness mark, primarily marks ( or hairlines for Proofs ), fall, eye appeal, and luster .
Attribution – The assign or reference of a coin to its informant, engraver of its dies, or of its die kind as described in a numismatic work. case : United States copper cents of the 1793-1814 years can be attributed to Sheldon numbers, as, for example, S-48, as delineated in early american Cents, Dr. William H. Sheldon, 1949 .
AU – An abbreviation for “ About Uncirculated. ”
Auction – An volunteer of numismatic items for sale to the highest bidder, rather than ordering from a catalogue, price list, or ad at a fasten price .
Auctioneer – The person who recognizes and accept bids during an auction .
Authentic – A numismatic token that is actual and was produced at the time and place to which it has been attributed .
Authentication – The process by which a decision is made as to whether a coin or other numismatic detail is genuine .
Back of a Note – The reverse side of a note and the paper money equivalent of rearward used for coins .
Bag – A term for the fabric sacks that were used to carry, transmit and store coins. Bags replaced wooden keg in the mid-nineteenth century. The term “ cup of tea ” can besides refer to the value by volume of a specific denomination. case : a cup of tea of eloquent dollars is $ 1,000 side value .
Bag Marks – Minor marks on an otherwise Uncirculated mint often resulting from having been stored or shipped in bags with other coins .
Bag Toning – This occurs when the surface of a coin has changed color from being stored in a fabric bag. The material that comprised cloth bags contained metal-reactive chemicals, including sulphur, and when stored for widen periods of time, the coins near the fabric would acquire attractive blue, park, jaundiced, loss and other vibrant colors. Depending on the mint ’ sulfur placement in the udder, you can sometimes see the texture of the bag in the tone. crescent tone can besides occur when a mint is on top of another coin in the bag. Since part of the coin ’ sulfur open is covered, toning doesn ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate grow in certain areas. Bag tone is most frequently seen on Morgan eloquent dollars, but it is occasionally seen on other series .
Bank Note – 1. part of newspaper money, or currency, issued by or bearing the mention of a bank. In numismatics this most particularly refers to obsolete currentness issued by banks circa 1782-1866. 2. popularly, any character of composition money issued by a bank or government .
Bank Note Reporter – A print publication issued monthly by F+W Publications .
Bank-Wrapped Rolls – The Federal Reserve Bank would wrap rolls of coins by appellation from the original mint bags. These rolls are typically desired by collectors because they have not been looked through by early collectors or dealers. besides abbreviated as OBW, for “ original bank wrapped. ”
Bar Copper, Bar Cent – Copper coin or nominal, slenderly smaller than the size of a contemporaneous state copper coin, featuring the monogram USA on the obverse, and 13 parallel bars on the change by reversal. original pieces are said to have circulated in New York in 1785. The godhead is unknown .
Bar, Metal – A slug or ingot of alloy issued by a mine, refinery, mint, or early establishment working with metals. Sizes range from small, weighing precisely a few ounces ( such as those issued as souvenirs and keepsakes by mining companies ) to big versions weighing many pounds. Gold and silver bars of the nineteenth hundred were customarily stamped with information including the weight, honor, write out, a series numeral, and sometimes the value and/or the date. besides known as an ingot .
Barber Coinage – A common name for the series of Liberty Head dimes, quarters, and half dollars designed by Charles Barber which were struck from 1892 until 1916 .
Basal State – The lowest grade of a numismatic item. The mint is worn to the point where it can only be identified as a coin, and that it is a certain denomination and type .
Basal Value – This is the prize infrastructure upon which Dr. William H. Sheldon ’ s 70-point grade/price system was created. Each variety of large copper cents dated from 1793 to 1814 was given a radical value that could be multiplied by the numeral grade of an individual mint to determine its market price. Thus a cent with a basal value of $ 5 and in VF-20 grad would be worth $ 100. The system was ticket in theory, but it failed in commit and is no longer used nowadays .
Baseball Cap Coin – A slang condition for the Panama-Pacific ( Pan-Pac ) commemorative gold dollar coin, because the figure on the obverse wears a cap that resembles a baseball cap .
Basining – A die polish process to remove clash marks or early damage or to create a mirrored surface on the die .
Bass, Harry W. Jr. – Numismatic connoisseur, builder of one of the greatest collections of American aureate ever formed. We auctioned his collection in a act of sales beginning in 1999. Today the Harry W. Bass, Jr. Museum at ANA Headquarters in Colorado Springs showcases extra treasures. The Harry W. Bass Museum Sylloge, by Q. David Bowers, was published by us .
Battleship Note – A common name for a series of 1918 $ 2 Federal Reserve Bank Note which depicts a battleship on the back printed in green .
Beaded Border – A continuous band of minor, round design elements around the edge of a mint, late replaced by dentils. These are most much seen on early U.S. coins .
Betts Medal – A decoration with motifs relating to early America as described by C. Wyllys Betts in american Colonial History Illustrated by Contemporary Medals published in 1894 .
BG Gold – A common condition for California fractional gold coins as stated in the Breen-Gillio reference work titled California Pioneer Fractional Gold .
Bid – An offer made by a bidder at an auction for a particular numismatic token. besides, the top price a buyer is uncoerced to pay for a specific coin issue and grade, accepted either on a trade network, price newsletter, or other medium. See besides : ask ; unfold .
Bidder – A participant in an auction or a dealer issuing a quotation on an electronic trade system .
BIdder Number – Assigned by the auction house, the number assigned to a potential buyer who would like to execute bids during an auction .
Bill – Piece of composition money of $ 1 face measure or higher .
Bimetallic – Refers to a mint made of two different metals, normally bonded or clad ( not mixed as an alloy ), with each metal being visible upon interrogation. example : Certain pattern two-cent pieces with sections of silver bonded or fixed to a planchet of bronze. 2. A monetary system in which two precious metals, normally silver and gold, are both harmonize wide legal tender status based upon their intrinsic respect .
Birch Cent – Any one of several practice one-cent pieces dated 1792 and engraved by Birch .
Bison Note – A common identify for the $ 10 Series of 1901 Legal Tender Notes. Printed on the front is a bison .
Bit – A nickname for the Spanish-American flatware two-real mint worth 12½¢, popular in United States department of commerce until demonetized by the Act of February 21, 1857. A two-bit slice was worth 25¢. This dub is sometimes used today to refer to the United States quarter dollar .
Black Eagle Note – A common list for the $ 1 Series of 1899 Silver Certificates with a bold eagle on the confront of the note, printed in total darkness .
Blank – A compressed, plain metal magnetic disk prior to being struck into a coin. See besides : planchet .
Blemish – Minor nick, mark, defect, or touch of stain that mars the airfoil of a mint and detracts from its grade and appearance .
Blended – A terminus used to describe when one element of a coin is worn into another element or the surround field .
Bluebook – An annual wholesale price record for United States coins published by Whitman Publishing, LLC and sol list because of its amobarbital sodium cover .
Bluesheet – A common identify for the Certified Coin Dealer Newsletter .
Blundered Die – A coin die with an error in engraving, such as an turn back letter or numeral or some other err .
BM – An abbreviation for “ Branch Mint ” typically used when describing Branch Mint Proof coins, an example being the 1893-CC BM Proof Morgan dollar .
BN – An abbreviation for “ brown ” when referring to copper coins .
Body Bag – Slang term for a fictile sleeve, envelope, or early container used by a marking service to return a coin, with a comment as to why the firm did not want to grade it ( problems, etc. ) .
Bourse – A condition synonymous with a coin show or mint convention .
Bourse Floor – The physical location where a coin show or coin conventionality takes identify .
Braided Hair – This refers to the hair style where the hair is pulled back into a tight bun with a braid hair cord. This is seen on half cents and large cents from 1840 on .
Branch Mint – A United States mint other than the Philadelphia Mint where coins are, or were once, struck .
Breast Feathers – The central feathers of the eagle design on many unlike coins, but particularly Morgan dollars. in full and well strike coins tend to command a premium and the breast feathers are normally the most relation feature when value is being determined .
Breen – A slang terminus used when referring to the late Walter Breen .
Breen Book – Slang for Walter Breen ’ s Complete Encyclopedia of U.S. and Colonial Coins, a reference book book published in 1988 .
Breen Letter – A document written or typed by Walter Breen in which he states his opinion on a specific numismatic token. Before third party certification services, this was the common method acting used by dealers and collectors to authenticate a unique detail .
Breen-Gillio – Numbering system for fractional aureate coins based on the book, California Pioneer Fractional Gold, by Walter Breen and Ron Gillio .
Brilliant – A marking term for a mint with original cartwheel or prooflike luster, unimpeded by toning .
Brilliant Proof – A Proof coin with mirrorlike surfaces .
Brilliant Uncirculated – A common term for any mint that has not been circulated .
Brockage – A mint error mint caused by the failure to eject a strike coin from the dies, after which a blank planchet is inserted into the dies, receiving on one side the correct visualize of a die and on the other side an incuse impression made from the already-struck coin in the dies. The result is a coin which has one side in relief and the early side with an incuse mirror picture of the lapp die. A brockage can be of a reverse or an obverse. Obverse brockages are seen more frequently .
Bronze – An alloy of copper, zinc, and tin, normally 95 % copper and the remainder zinc and tin .
Brother Jonathan, S.S. – Sidewheel steamer lost off the coast of California in 1865, recovered in the belated twentieth hundred. double eagles and early gold coins auctioned by us, and a bible, The Treasure Ship S.S. Brother Jonathan, by Q. David Bowers, was published by us .
Brown – Describes the tone on certain copper coins that have lost their bolshevik semblance, normally abbreviated as BN on certify holders .
Brushing – A series of minute twin lines caused by rubbing a light abrasive across the coat of a coin .
Bryan money, Bryan – Describes tokens and medals relating to William Jennings Bryan ’ s presidential campaigns of 1896 ( in detail ), 1900, and 1908, largely with inscriptions relating to the “ silver question. ”
BU – An abbreviation for Brilliant Uncirculated .
BU Rolls – Wrapped coins, typically in paper, in specific quantities for each appellation. Cents, 50 ; nickels, 40 ; dimes, 50 ; quarters, 40 ; half dollars and dollars, 20 .
Buckled Die – A die that is warped or distorted, typically caused by excessive clash, that produces slenderly bend coins .
Buffalo Nickel – Slang term for the indian Head nickel, which depicts an american english bison on the invert. These were struck from 1913 to 1938 .
Bulged Die – A die that clashes multiple times can form a small indentation, alloy then fills the indentation and produces coins that have a bulged area .
Bullet Toning – A synonym for prey tone .
Bullion – Uncoined aureate or silver in the form of bars, ingots or plates that trade based on their intrinsic metal value .
Bullion Coin – A mint strike for sale as a convenient mannequin of gold, ash grey, platinum or palladium, frequently in increments of a Troy snow leopard. intrinsic metallic element weight determines value. Examples include the U.S. Gold Eagle and the canadian Maple Leaf .
Bureau of Engraving and Printing – Federal department in change of printing paper money and other security items .
Burn Mark – A synonym for counting machine mark .
Burnishing – Rubbing or polishing the surfaces of a coin or planchet to make it shine. Proof planchets are burnished before they are struck, primitively by rubbing wet sandpaper across the coat to reveal a mirror-like finish. Burnishing can besides refer to when the surfaces on alter or animate coins are treated, through a variety of ways, either mechanically or chemically. Burnishing a mint after it is strike lessens its value .
Burnishing Lines – Incuse lines resulting from burnishing, most frequently seen on open-collar Proofs .
Burnt – A slang terminus for a coin that has dull and lackluster surfaces because the mint has been over-dipped .
Business Strike – A term devised by Walter Breen to describe a coin hit and intended for regular circulation rather than chiefly for sale to collectors. circulation hit is the more descriptive prefer term .
Bust – The head and shoulders of Miss Liberty as seen on many United States issues .
Bust Dollar – A slang term for Draped Bust dollar, eloquent dollars struck from 1795-1803 .
Buyer’s Premium – An extra fee paid by the winning bidder, as defined by our terms of sale .
C – A mintmark used to indicate a mint smitten at the Charlotte, North Carolina arm mint .
Cabinet Friction – Typically seen on the obverse, slender friction seen on coins that have been stored in wooden cabinets used by early collectors. Often a soft fabric was used to wipe dust away, which would cause sparkle tell-tale marks .
Cabinet, Coin Cabinet – A wooden ( normally ) cabinet with drawers used to store a numismatic collection. It is besides a synonym for a coin solicitation that may or may not reside in a cabinet .
CAC – An abbreviation for the Certified Acceptance Corporation, a company that reviews coins that have already been encapsulated by a third-party grade service. If a coin meets CAC ’ s rigorous grading standard, it will receive a k or gold CAC hologram poser. A gold CAC hologram poser indicates the coin exceeds CAC ’ s grade standards and a green hologram poser indicates the coin meets the standards. This mugwump numismatic coin authentication service was founded by John Albanese .
Caduceus – Medical symbol, in this case representing the fight against yellow fever in Panama. Shown on the 1915-S Panama-Pacific International Exposition $ 2.50 .
California Fractional Gold – Descriptive of 25¢ and 50¢ pieces ( besides incorrectly extended to describe $ 1 ) minted privately in California from the 1850s through the 1880s, and described in literature by Lee, Burnie, Gillio, and Breen .
CAM – An abbreviation for Cameo .
Cameo – A Proof or prooflike coin with extreme contrast between the devices and the fields, where the fields appear to be mirrorlike and the devices look frigid .
Canadian – A general term for coins and other relate numismatic items from Canada .
Canadian – Slang for the coins and other numismatic items of the Canada .
Canadian Silver – Slang term used when referring to silver coins of Canada. ( chiefly struck in 80 % fineness. )
Cap Bust – A abbreviated term for Capped Bust .
Capped Bust – A term used to describe any of the respective depictions of Miss Liberty as displayed on early U.S. coins by a female chest and floppy-capped mind. Designed by John Reich .
Capped Die – A “ cap ” forms on either the upper or lower die when a coin becomes jammed in the mint crusade and remains there for consecutive strikes. These are sometimes dramatic with the “ cap ” often much taller than a regular coin .
Carbon Spot – A colored brown to black discoloration on the surface of a mint caused by oxidation. This is chiefly seen on copper and gold coins, though occasionally found on U.S. nickel coins. Carbon spots can vary in size, and their severity will affect the grade and value of the coin .
Carson City Mint – A democratic ramify of the United States Mint, located in Carson City, Nevada that produced amber and silver medal coins from 1870-1885 and 1889-1893. This mint used the “ CC ” mintmark .
Cartwheel – A term applied chiefly to frosty Mint State coins, specially silver medal dollars, to describe their shininess when the coin is tilted back and forth under a lighter reference. The luster rotates around the central devices of the coin. This can besides be used as a slang condition for a argent dollar .
Cast Blanks – Planchets created by a determine process, rather than cut from strips of metallic element .
Cast Counterfeit – A forge mint upon which a seam is much found on the boundary, unless it has been ground gloomy. A replica of a genuine mint created by making molds of the obverse and reverse and casting base alloy in the molds .
Castaing Machine – A machine which added border letter and devices to early U.S. coins before they were struck. Invented by French engineer Jean Castaing, these machines were used until close collar dies were introduced, which added the edge device during the fall process .
Catalog – The procedure of writing a description of numismatic items offered for sale. A term besides used for our print list of auction lots for sale .
CC – A mintmark used to indicate coins struck at the Carson City branch mint, in Carson City, Nevada. See besides Carson City Mint .
CCDN – An abbreviation for the Certified Coin Dealer Newsletter .
CCE – An abbreviation for the Certified Coin Exchange .
CDN – An abbreviation for the Coin Dealer Newsletter .
Census – The know specimens of a finical numismatic detail. A census allows the collector to determine crop and handiness of a specific consequence .
Cent – A U.S. coin denomination valued at one-hundredth of the criterion monetary unit .
Central America, S.S. – Sidewheel steamer launched in 1853, in overhaul in the Atlantic. On September 12, 1857, with over 400 passengers and crew aboard and over $ 1,600,000 in register gold prize ( gold was worth $ 20.67 per ounce ), she sank in a hurricane. a lot of the care for was recovered by Bob Evans, Tommy Thompson and others in the 1980s. In the early twenty-first hundred our firm participated in the publicity and distribution of certain coins and ingots from the gem, and Q. David Bowers wrote A California Gold Rush History, which was widely acclaimed. Abbreviated as S.S.C.A .
Certification Service – Third-party grade service which, for a fee, will assign a grade opinion to a coin submitted. Firms include Professional Coin Grading Service ( PCGS ), Numismatic Guaranty Corporation of America ( NGC ), ANACS, and others .
Certified Coin – A coin that has been commercially graded by a rate service, a.k.a. certification service. The license term arose when the American Numismatic Association Certification Service ( ANACS ), which originally certified coins for their authenticity, began grading coins arsenic well. such coins were called certified. The name has remained with us .
Certified Coin Dealer Newsletter – A hebdomadally newsletter that reports the invite, ask, and commercialize prices for third-party license coins. besides known as the “ Bluesheet. ”
Certified Coin Exchange – A real-time mint bid/ask, sight-seen/unseen lawful trade system for coin dealers .
Certified Note – A note that has been commercially graded by a grading service, a.k.a. certificate serve, and placed in a seal holder .
CH – An abbreviation for the degree Choice .
Chain Cent – A nickname for the 1793 Flowing Hair cent with the Chain reverse, the inaugural coins struck at the original batch build in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania .
Chapman Proof – The 1921 Morgan dollar Proofs purportedly struck for coin dealer Henry Chapman. These coins rarely have cameo devices and deeply mirror surfaces like most Morgan dollar Proofs .
Charlotte Mint – A branch of the United States Mint, located in Charlotte, North Carolina that produced gold coins from 1838-1861 and was closed due to the Civil War. This mint uses the “ C ” mintmark .
Charter Number – Beginning in 1863, numbers were assigned to each of the National Banks that were chartered by the Treasury Department. These numbers were printed on the confront of each notice along with the notes series numbers. sometimes the numbers were retained by the bank even if the depository financial institution moved or changes its name .
Chasing – A method used by forgers that involves heating the surfaces of a coin and moving the metallic element to form a mintmark .
Cherrypicker – A collector who finds barely and unusual coins by cautiously searching through unattributed items in old accumulations or dealer inventories .
Choice – An term used to describe an particularly choose specimen of a given rate, but with no official definition. A choice coin can plainly be a decent or a please coin at any grade level .
Choice Unc – An abbreviation for Choice Uncirculated .
Choice Uncirculated – A grade term for an Uncirculated mint grading MS-63 or MS-64 .
Chop Marks – Chinese characters stamped on the coat of argent and amber coins in the nineteenth hundred to indicated to merchants, banks and others in China that these were of full weight unit and metallic content. today, chop marked coins are collected as a numismatic specialization .
Circulated – A term applied to a mint that has any extent of clothing .
Circulation – A term for using coins in commerce .
Circulation Strike – A coin intended for eventual use in department of commerce, besides known as a business strike or a regular strike, different from a Proof mint which was intended for collectors .
Clad – A terminus used to describe the issues of United States dim, quarters, halves and some dollars made since 1965 with a center field core of arrant copper and a layer of copper nickel or eloquent on both sides .
Clad Bag – A term used to describe a bag containing $ 1,000 of side measure invest neologism, most normally 40 % silver half dollars .
Clash Marks – Impressions of the reverse invention on the obverse of a coin or the obverse design on the reverse of a mint due to die damage caused when the fall dies impacted each other with big force and without an intervene planchet .
Clashed Dies – Dies that assume each other without a planchet between them ( see : clash marks ) .
Clashing – The march of the amphetamine and lower dies striking each early without a planchet between them .
Classic Era – Considered to be the period from 1792 until 1964 when argent and gold coins of the United States were issued. ( Gold coins, however, were not minted after 1933. )
Classic Head – This refers to the image of Miss Liberty that resembles the “ classic ” style of a Roman or Greek athlete wearing a ribbon around her haircloth .
Cleaned – A terminus applied to a coin from which the master open has been stripped away by having been cleaned with a balmy harsh. The mint then appears slightly washed out and/or has an unnatural appearance depending on the asperity of the method acting used. Coins that have been cleaned are considered damage and this powerfully affects their prize .
Clip – A gull term for a mint strike from an irregularly baseball swing or clipped planchet .
Clipped – A term used to describe an irregularly baseball swing planchet. The trot may be straight or curved .
Clogged Die – A die becomes clogged when grease or some kind of early contaminant becomes stuck in its recessed areas. This causes the coins that are struck from these dies to be lacking detail .
Close Collar – The edge apparatus, occasionally called a collar die, that surrounds the lower die and imparts a smooth, plain edge or reeding to the mint .
Closed Collar – Alternate terminus for close up choker .
C-Mint – A term used for coins struck at the Charlotte, North Carolina arm mint .
Cob – Antecedent to the legal-tender Spanish-American coins in the Americas. Spanish-American gold or eloquent mint denominated in veridical or portuguese escudo denominations. broadly refers to pre-1732 coins which were crudely struck from planchets cut from rods or bars. The typical cob-style mint is crude in appearance with not all of the inscriptions fully struck .
Cohen Variety – Listed as C-1, C-2, C-2a, and therefore on, Cohen numbers describe different die varieties of one-half cents .
Coiled Hair – Descriptive of the hairdo of Miss Liberty on certain 1879-1880 traffic pattern coins, specially the $ 4 gold stella, made by George T. Morgan .
Coin – A piece of metal of standard recognized value, issued under government authority, broadly bearing a appellation and intended for circulation .
Coin Collection – A group of coins assembled for fun or net income .
Coin Collector – An individual who seeks out and accumulates coins in a taxonomic manner over a period of time .
Coin Dealer Newsletter – A weekly newsletter that reports the bid and ask for most U.S. coins. besides known as the “ Greysheet. ”
Coin Doctor – Slang term for a collector or trader who tries to enhance the value or degree of a coin by cleanse, artificial tone, or other processes, such procedure being conducted privately and with the coins belated offered without mention of the “ improvements. ”
Coin Friction – A term for the area where small amounts of metallic are displaced as a result of two coins rubbing together in bags or rolls .
Coin Note – A note redeemable in coins issued in the series of 1890 and 1891. The denominations range from $ 1 to $ 1,000. It was up to the Treasury Department to determine whether flatware or gold coins would be paid, but in practice the holder decided. besides known as Treasury Note .
Coin Show – A defined time and localization at which coin dealers and collectors gather to display numismatic items for sale and trade .
Coin World – The top weekly numismatic periodical, established in 1960 .
COINage – A monthly numismatic publication .
Coinage – The issue of metallic money .
Coins Magazine – A monthly numismatic publication .
Collar – The forbidden ring that holds a planchet in put in the coinage bid while the mint is struck by the obverse and overrule dies .
Colonial Coin – A mint strike in or related to colonial America ( pre-Revolution ) or, loosely, referring to certain other coins through the early 1790s, not made by the federal government .
COMEX – The New York-based Commodity Exchange, Inc. where aureate and silver medal is traded on a daily footing. In the United States, the smudge price, or commercialize value of gold at the moment a transaction is finalized, is normally based upon deal at the COMEX .
Commem – A shorten condition for the word “ commemorative. ”
Commemorative – A coin issued in recognition of a person, place, or event, often besides to raise funds for a related causal agent. sometimes referred to as NCLT ( non-circulating legal tender ) commemoratives .
Commercial Strike – An alternate terminus for regular strike or business fall .
Common – A term used to describe the relative handiness of a numismatic issue since there is no numeric value assigned for scarcity .
Common Date – A promptly available date of issue within a series. A proportional term, since there is no exact rate for determining the difference between park and scarce dates .
Complete Set – A collection that includes all possible coins within a series, all types, or all coins from a particular branch mint. For exemplar, a complete set of Peace dollars ( series ) would includes all dates and types between 1921 and 1935 .
Compound Interest Treasury Note – Notes issued in the early on 1860s in the denominations $ 1 to $ 1,000, which would yield concern to the carrier .
Condition – A numismatic detail ’ sulfur department of state of preservation .
Condition Census – Data concerning the range and handiness of the finest know examples of a especial numismatic issue .
Condition Rarity – A term for a coarse coin that is rare when found in high gear grades .
Consensus Grading – Using multiple graders to evaluate the discipline of a coin .
Conservation – Carefully changing the appearance of a coin ’ s surface by dissolving grease or oxidation, removing stains or spots, etc., in a manner that does not disturb the original surface ( glistening or mirrorlike ), with the goal of enhancing the coin ’ second market value and sex appeal .
Contact Marks – The term for marks on a coin that are inflicted by contact with another coin or extraneous object. Generally these are little in comparison to gouges or other types of marks .
Contemporary Counterfeit – A coin strickle from petroleum dies, normally composed of base metal, and created to pass for legal tender at the clock time it was made. These can be collected along with genuine coins, particularly in american colonial issues .
Continental Dollars – The foremost ash grey dollar-sized coins always proposed for the United States that are dated 1776, although likely strike sometime by and by. The reverse liaison purpose was suggested by Benjamin Franklin. These were struck in pewter ( barely ), brass ( rare ), copper ( extremely rare ) and flatware ( extremely rare ) and varieties result from differences in the spell of the word CURRENCY and the addition of EG FECIT on the obverse. Some of these were possibly struck as experimental or model coins .
Copper Spot – A stain or descry that appears on an sphere where copper concentration that has oxidized, typically seen on gold coinage. copper stains or spots range in size from bantam dots to big blotches .
Copper-Nickel – The alloy used for humble cents from 1856 to mid-1864, comprised of 88 % copper and 12 % nickel .
Copper-Nickel Cents – A terminus for cents issued from 1856 until mid 1864 made from copper-nickel debase. These were normally called white cents when they were issued due to their pale color in comparison to the red cents of the past .
Coppers – A slang term that encompasses pre-federal copper issues, half cents, and big cents .
Copy – Any reproduction of a coin, deceitful or otherwise .
Copy Dies – Counterfeit dies copied directly from a genuine coin and besides dies made at a former date, typically showing slight differences from the originals .
Coronet Head – Another list for the Braided Hair design by Christian Gobrecht, besides called the Liberty Head design .
Corrosion – price that occurs on a coin ’ sulfur come on as the leave of a chemical reaction, typically due to improper memory. An model would be corrode .
Cost – The price paid for a numismatic detail .
Counterfeit – A coin or a part of currentness that is not genuine and was forged in defiance of government authority with the captive to defraud. These include coins that are cast and struck counterfeits, bills printed from false plates, issues with total mintmarks, and issues with adapted dates .
Counterstamp – A design, group of letters, or early score stamped on a coin for special identification or ad purposes. Counterstamped coins are graded the room regular ( not counterstamped ) coins are, but the nature and condition of the counterstamp must besides be described .
Counting Machine Mark – When the count machine ’ s rubber bicycle was not set with the proper spacing, it would cause a dense bandage of lines on the surface of the mint. This bandage of lines is called a count machine sign .
Crossover – A mint that was encapsulated by one rate serve, then sent to another and put in a holder of the second base caller ; i, the coin crossed all over .
Cud – A die break ( see list ) at the rim of a coin, often filling in part of the rim and dentils .
Cupro-Nickel – Any alloy of copper and nickel .
D – A mintmark used to indicate coins struck at the Dahlonega, Georgia branch mint from 1838-1861 or the Denver, Colorado ramify mint from 1906 to the salute .
Dahlonega Mint – A branch of the United States Mint, located in Dahlonega, Georgia, that produced aureate coins from 1838-1861 and was closed due to the Civil War. This mint uses the “ D ” mintmark .
Damaged Coin – A coin that has been impaired apart from normal wear, by scraping, bore, polishing, or other abuse. Generally, a damaged coin will not be given a stand-alone grade designation but will be described adjectivally. case : 1822 penny, holed at the top, otherwise VF-30. Such a mint must not be simply described as VF-30 without foster comment .
Date – The numerals on a coin that represent the year the coin was struck. Restrikes are made in years subsequent to the date that appears on them .
Date Size Descriptions – Terms are used to differentiate the size of the numerals on the date of a given mint, relative in relation back to other varieties of the lapp return. such terms as Small Date, Large Date, and Medium Date are often used. Often capitalized in numismatic usage .
Date Spacing (Width) Descriptions – Terms such as Wide Date, Compact Date, Narrow Date, and so forth, are sometimes employed to describe the space of numerals within a date or the overall width of a date, relative in relation to other varieties of the same issue .
DCAM – An abbreviation for Deep Cameo line .
DDO – An abbreviation for double die obverse .
Dealer – One who buys, sells, and trades numismatic material .
Deep Cameo – A term that applies typically to a Proof or prooflike mint with deeply frosted central devices and lettering in high gear contrast to the mirror like fields. sometimes these are called “ black and egg white ” cameo .
Deep Cameo Contrast – Describes the portrayal or devices on a Proof coin being specially frosted or satiny, or cameo, in contrast with mirrorlike fields. Abbreviated DCAM. apparently more contrast than Cameo ( CAM ). certain of this is semantics, with actual differences being slight between versatile cameo designations .
Deep Mirror Prooflike – An Uncirculated coin with the fields struck from highly polished or mirrored dies, and close resembling a Proof .
Demand Note – Notes issued in 1861 and early 1862 cashable in gold coins, with denominations $ 5 to $ 20 .
Denomination – The value assigned to a specific mint or objet d’art of currency by the government .
Denticles – Small, toothlike projections around the inner rim of some coins, most frequently seen on coins from the 18th and 19th centuries .
Dentils – A bowdlerize term for denticles .
Denver Mint – A branch of the United States Mint, located in Denver, Colorado that manufactures coins of all denominations for general circulation, stores gold and silver bullion, medals, coin dies, and manufactures Uncirculated mint sets and commemorative coins. The Denver Mint was established in 1906 and uses the “ D ” mintmark .
Design – A coin or other numismatic detail ’ south motif. Peace dollars, Buffalo nickels, and Liberty double over eagles are examples of designs .
Design Type – A distinct motif that is on a coin or other numismatic item and used for multiple denominations or subtypes. An example would be the Barber blueprint type that was used on argent dimes, quarters and half dollars .
Designation – A characteristic added to a coin ’ sulfur grade that specifies a certain attribute or quality such as tinge, mint or appearance not covered by the numeric grade. not all series and denominations have designations, but for those that do, the associated appointment will affect the coin ’ s value. Copper coins have color designations of Red, Red-Brown, and Brown. Standing liberty quarters can have the designation of Full Head, where Miss Liberty ’ second oral sex is fully struck. Some other designations include : Prooflike, Deep Cameo, Deep Mirror Prooflike .
Designer – The artist who creates a mint ’ sulfur design .
Details – Small features and finely lines in a mint design, particularly those seen in hair, leaves, wreaths, and feathers .
Deuce – A gull term for a $ 2 bill .
Device – Any element of blueprint, much referring to the chief design component, on either the obverse or invert of a coin or numismatic item. An example would be the head of Miss Liberty .
Device Punch – A steel rod with raised devices on the end that would be used to punch the elements into a working die, a proficiency used prior to hubbed dies .
Die – A shank or rod of steel engraved on its face with a design for use in stamping coins .
Die Alignment – A terminus that indicates that the obverse and reverse dies are in their proper position and will strike a coin evenly .
Die Break – A raise area on a coin caused by metallic filling the quad caused from a small chip or piece falling out of a die. Those at the brim of a coin are called cuds or chew breaks. Die breaks can be interesting and have no effect on rate or market value of older coins but for a advanced issue can command a big premium .
Die Crack – A raise ridge, much irregular, on the surface of a coin, caused by a crack in the die, and metallic from the planchet filling the fracture. Die cracks can be matter to and have no effect on grade or grocery store measure of older coins but for a mod issue can command a great agio .
Die Line – Appearing as raised lines on a coin, these are caused by polish lines on the fail .
Die Polish – Refers to a “ bright ” or mirrorlike spot or area, not the integral surface, of a mint, where a work die was polished slightly to remove an imperfection, rust, etc. Heavy die polish is a different matter, and refers to the stallion sphere of a mint being resurfaced, besides called relapping. Heavy die polishing sometimes resulted in the removal of low-relief details in a coin, while at the same time giving a prooflike surface .
Die Rust – Raised farinaceous patches on a coin caused by rust on the die, frequently the consequence of improper storage .
Die State – An well identified bespeak in the life cross of a neologism die. Dies can clash, rust, fracture, break, etc., and evidence of such represents a different department of state of the die. Certain coins have scantily distinct die states, while others show multiple classifiable die states .
Die Striations – Raised lines on coins caused by having been struck with polished dies, alike to die lines .
Die Trial – A term for testing the strike of a particular die in a different metal .
Die Variety – Any minor revision to the basic design of a coin that has already been attributed by denomination, date, mintmark and major variety. Some examples of die varieties are variances in the size, form, and placement of the date and mintmark .
Die Wear – A term for the loss of detail on a mint caused by striking the mint with wear dies .
Dime – A denomination valued at one-tenth of the standard monetary whole, issued by the United States starting in 1796 .
Ding – A common term for a small to medium size mark on a mint .
Dipped – A coin that has been placed in a chemical solution, much resulting in the removal of toning from most coins. When a coin is dipped, the foremost few layers of metallic are removed and will finally lose shininess. We do not advise dipping your coins .
Dipping Solution – A commercial chemical solution available on the grocery store and used to dip coins .
Disme – One tenth of a dollar. The early spell of the discussion “ dime. ”
D-Mint – An abbreviation for coins struck at the Dahlonega, Georgia mint from 1838-1861 or the Denver, Colorado mint 1906-present .
DMPL – An abbreviation for Deep Mirror Prooflike. sometimes marked “ dimple. ”
Doctored – A descriptive terminus for a numismatic detail that has been enhanced by chemical or other means, normally considered a derogative expression .
Dollar – A appellation valued at one hundred cents and considered to be the U.S. standard monetary whole. Authorized by the United States government via the Mint Act of 1792. The son “ dollar ” is the anglicise spell of the European thaler and was chosen ascribable to the worldwide acceptance of the thaler and the spanish Milled dollar .
Double Die Obverse – A doubled die error ( see besides ) that results in the double of design elements on the obverse lone .
Double Eagle – A United States $ 20 gold mint .
Doubled Die – A die that has been struck more than once by a hub that is in fallible conjunction, resulting in the doubling of design elements ; the coin is called a doubled-die mistake. The most celebrated is the 1955 Doubled Die Lincoln cent .
Double-Struck – A term for a coin that is not ejected from the dies and is struck again. To sharpen their details, Proof coins are broadly double struck intentionally and this is sometimes visible under exaggeration. Coins can besides be triple-struck or more .
Doubloon – Spanish-American 8-escudos gold mint equal to about $ 16 U.S. such coins were legal tender in the United States until the implementation of the Act of February 21, 1857, but were chiefly used in large commercial transactions, not in everyday transfer. fractional pieces of 8-escudo doubloons were called pieces of eight ( as were fractional pieces of 8-real argent “ dollars ” ) .
Draped Bust – A design of Miss Liberty with a drape across her flop line attributed to Mint Engraver Robert Scot who is thought to have copied a portrayal by Gilbert Stuart .
Drift Mark – A streaked or discolored area on a mint, typically long, caused by extraneous matter or impurities on the die .
Dull – A lackluster numismatic item, possibly the consequence of natural environmental conditions or clean .
EAC – An abbreviation for early american Coppers .
Eagle – A United States $ 10 aureate mint. name besides applies to certain amber bullion coins .
Early American Coppers (Club) – A golf club whose purpose is to advance the survey of pre-1857 U.S. copper issues, including colonial-era coins .
ED – An abbreviation for environmental price .
Edge – The rim or “ third side ” of a mint, which may bear vertical striations ( reeding or milling ), lettering or decoration so any trot or grazing of precious metals would be obvious .
Edge Device – The design elements, like letters or emblems, on the edge of a mint .
Educational Note – A common name for the elaborately designed Series of 1896 Silver Certificates, including the $ 1, $ 2 and $ 5 .
EF – An abbreviation for extremely Fine .
Electrotype – A counterfeit coin made by the electrodepositation of metallic .
Elements – The devices and emblems on a coin. In the context of marking, the components that constitute the grade .
Eliasberg, Louis E. – Beginning in 1925 Mr. Eliasberg, a Baltimore banker and finally the owner of the Finance Company of America, commenced building a coin solicitation, augmented greatly in 1942 when the John H. Clapp Collection of United States coins was purchased intact for $ 100,000, through Stack ’ sulfur, this being tied for the greatest private transaction in american numismatics up to that fourth dimension. Mr. Eliasberg then determined to acquire one of every date and mintmark of federal neologism from the 1793 half penny to the 1933 doubly eagle. This was accomplished in 1950 when he purchased the unique 1873-CC No Arrows dime. He besides had a wide choice of ancient coins, individual and territorial gold, colonial coins, and more. We auctioned the collection in a series of record-breaking sales beginning in 1982 and concluding in 2010 for closely $ 45 million and his solicitation is considered to be one of the greatest in numismatic history .
Embossing – A terminus to describe the raised impression on a notice caused by pressing dampen paper into the recesses of a printing plate .
Emission Sequence – The ordering in which die states are struck. besides, the die use sequence for a particular issue .
Encapsulation – The encase of a mint in a difficult plastic holder ( nickname “ slab ” ) by a third-party marking service such as the Professional Coin Grading Service ( PCGS ), Numismatic Guaranty Corporation of America ( NGC ), ANACS, and others .
Encased Postage Stamp – Brass ensnare, with acquit mica face, enclosing a even union postage stamp of a appellation from 1¢ to 90¢. On the back of most, embossed in raise letters in boldness, is the list of an advertiser. Patented by John Gault, and popular as a money ersatz in 1862 and 1863 .
Engraver – Formerly called a diemaker, the person responsible for the blueprint and/or punches used for a mint or other numismatic detail .
Envelope Toning – A color on the airfoil of a coin resulting from the chemical reaction that occurs when it has been stored in a belittled manila envelope over a long fourth dimension .
Environmental Damage – A corrosive effect ranging from minor muffle or toning to severe pit, discernible on a coin that has been exposed to the elements .
Eroded Die – Another condition for “ wear die. ”
Error – The term for a numismatic item that unintentionally varies from the average. normally, overdates are not errors since they were done intentionally while early die-cutting “ mistakes ” are considered errors. double dies, planchet clips, off-metal strikings, etc. besides are errors .
Escudo – Gold appellation equivalent to $ 2 ; part of the Spanish-American neologism system. legal crank in the U.S. until the implementation of the Act of February 21, 1857 .
Essai – A terminus for test, pattern, and experimental strikings .
Exergue – That part of a coin beneath the main design broadly separated by a line or ridge .
Exonumia – A condition to describe collectibles related to coins and wallpaper money, but never legal tender. Examples include tokens, medals, badges, etc .
Expert – One who specializes in a define numismatic area, for case a copper technical, a Bust dollar expert, etc .
Extra Fine – Shortened term for highly Fine .
Extremely Fine – A scaling term that describes a coin that has about 90-95 % of full detail with only the high points worn, the fields are frequently with luster barely remaining in the protected areas. This is besides abbreviated as EF. The numerical equivalents associated with Extremely Fine are EF-40 and EF-45 .
Extremely High Relief – Designed by Augustus Saint-Gaudens, this 1907 doubling eagle had thus much medallic astuteness that it had to be struck multiple times to bring up the full detail. The invention was then lowered, resulting in the high Relief design, which again was lowered to create the Saint-Gaudens duplicate eagle design .
Eye Appeal – The immanent measure of a mint ’ mho attractiveness. A coin with good center solicitation is one that is attractive and does not have dullness, stains, spots, damage, or anything take away. Often, a coin with excellent eye invoke will command a premium. eye appeal can be separate of the marking march, and higher grades, such as MS-67 or above normally have good eye appeal .
F – An abbreviation for Fine .
Face of a Note – The front slope of a eminence and paper money equivalent of obverse used for coins .
Face Value – The appellation ’ s originally assigned measure stamped on a mint. Face value does not determine actual value, which is based on numismatic prize or metal contented .
Fair – A grade terminus for coins showing heavy wear with the letter, devices and the date partially visible. This is abbreviated as FR. The numeric equivalent is FR-2 .
Fake – A term for a counterfeit, forged or altered coin .
Fantasy Piece – A term applied to coins struck at the caprice of mint officials. Examples include the assorted 1865 Motto and 1866 No Motto coins, ampere well as the 1868 big cent type of 1857 .
Fasces – The design element consist of a package of rods wrapped around an ax with a bulge blade seen on the turn back of Mercury dimes. The designation “ Full Bands ” refers to the fasces on which there is dispatch separation in the cardinal bands across the rods .
Fat Head – A slang term for modest size Capped Bust quarters and half eagles .
FB – An abbreviation for Full Bands .
FBL – An abbreviation for Full Bell Lines .
Federal Reserve Bank Note – Notes which have the boldly imprint name of a Federal Reserve Bank across the center of the face of the note and a letter designating its district. These large sized notes were issued in the series of 1915 and 1918 and bear the denominations $ 1 to $ 50 ; modest sized notes were issued in the series of 1929 with denominations ranging from $ 5 to $ 100 .
Federal Reserve Note – Large size and belittled size notes from $ 1 to $ 10,000, bearing the name of Federal Reserve Bank and a letter designating its district. The first was the series of 1914 and has been used to the give day .
FH – An abbreviation for Full Head .
Fiat Currency – Coinage not backed by a metallic element value .
Field – The fortune of a coin ’ s surface not used for a design or inscription .
Fine – A grading term for coins upon which details are worn away. Some detail is present in the recess areas, but it is not sharp. This is besides abbreviated as F. The numeral equivalents associated with Fine are F-12 and F-15 .
Fine Gold Content – The actual system of weights of pure gold in a mint, as opposed to the crying or overall weight of the piece. A U.S. amber bullion eagle has a fine weight of 31.1033 grams. The gross burden of 33.933 grams includes the copper that strengthens the admixture .
Fineness – Purity of gold or flatware, normally expressed in terms of one thousand parts .
Finest Known – The best-known condition example of a particular numismatic detail .
First Charter Note – A common term for Original Series and Series of 1875 National Bank Notes, with no basis in Treasury documents .
First Shot – The opportunity to buy a numismatic detail before it is offered to or shown to anyone else
First Strike – An unofficial condition, once popular but now practice rarely, referring to a coin struck shortly after a new die is put into use. such coins often have prooflike surfaces and resemble Proofs in certain ( but not all ) characteristics. Resurfaced previously-used dies sometimes besides have these characteristics, hence there is confusion when this term is used .
Five – Term for a half eagle or a $ 5 gold coin .
Five Indian – A common terminus for indian Head half eagles which were struck from 1908 to 1929 .
Five Lib – A common terminus for Liberty Head half eagles which were struck from 1839 until 1908 .
Fixed Price List – A list of numismatic items for sale at set prices .
Flat Edge – A particular variety show of High Reliefs that do not have a wire design on the boundary .
Flat Luster – A term for the consequence seen on coins that are struck from wear dies, evidenced by a mortify grey or dull luster .
Flip – A formative, elastic sleeve used to display or store coins. besides, to immediately sell a newly purchased detail, normally for curtly profit .
Flip Rub – A term for little stain on the high points of a coin, caused by contact with a flick .
Flow Lines – A condition for the lines that appear when the alloy flows outward from the center of the planchet as the coin is struck. These lines reflect light and lawsuit “ cartwheel ” luster .
Flowing Hair – A design of Miss Liberty where she has long, flowing hair, used from 1794-1795 on half dimes, half dollars and dollars, designed by Robert Scot .
Flying Eagle – A shorten terminus for Flying Eagle penny .
Flying Eagle Cent – The little penny that replaced the larger one, struck from 1856-1858, designed by James B. Longacre, and composed of 88 % bull and 12 % nickel .
Flyspecks – Minute oxidation spots much seen on the surfaces of coins, particularly higher grade copper and nickel coins, caused by exposure to small drops of moisture .
Focal Area – The area of a mint which draws a viewer ’ south eye. An exercise is the impudence of a Morgan dollar .
Ford, John Jr., Jr. – Ford, born in 1924, entered numismatics as a young person, and when he was a adolescent was actively dealing in the greater New York area. He was besides an employee of Stack ’ s and helped with catalogue and sales. Beginning in 1950 he joined New Netherlands Coin Company, and commencing in 1972 worked with Walter Breen and others to turn out some of the finest auction catalogs ever published. In the early twenty-first hundred his collection was consigned to us by his estate and was showcased in 24 separate sales over a long period of prison term. The extend of numismatic Americana was unprecedented and will never be equaled, as it combined not merely Ford ’ s longtime purchases but selections from the estate of the realm of F.C.C. Boyd, Wayte Raymond, and others, many of which were alone. Today the catalogs stand as a valuable reference book. The full realized challenged the $ 60 million mark, the most valuable solicitation ever sold anywhere in the global .
Foreign – A numismatic detail not from the United States .
Four-Dollar Gold Piece – Commonly known as a Stella, these were struck from 1879-1800 as patterns .
FR – An abbreviation for Fair .
Fractional Currency – Pertains to minor denomination notes issued by the Treasury Department beginning in 1863 and continuing through 1876, of denominations from three cents to fifty cents. These served as monetary substitutes in an earned run average in which silver coins were hoarded by the public. today they are widely collected .
Franklin – A shorten term for a Franklin half dollar .
Franklin Half Dollar – The one-half dollar featuring Benjamin Franklin on the obverse and the Liberty Bell on the reverse, designed by John Sinnock, and struck from 1948 until 1963 .
Friction – The appearance of slight wear on a mint ’ south high points or in the fields, where alone the luster is disturbed. Caused by rubbing .
Friedberg Numbers – Refers to catalog numbers devised by Robert Friedberg in Paper Money of the United States, first published in 1953 and a standard reference, updated by his sons Ira and Arthur .
Frosted Devices – The crystallized appearance seen on the raise elements of a coin .
Frosty Luster – The crystalline appearance of coins struck with dies that have frost in their adjourn areas. such coins show vibrant luster on their devices and/or surfaces. The come of crystallization may vary .
FS – An abbreviation for Full Steps .
Fugio Cents – Considered to be the first coins issued by assurance of the United States dated 1787 ; however Congress did not pass the Mint Act until 1792 so the case for the half dismes of 1792 as the foremost regular issue is besides valid. These were coined in New Haven, Connecticut .
Full Bands – A descriptive terminus applied to Mercury ( Winged Liberty Head ) dimes or Roosevelt dimes. On Mercury dimes it is when the central band is fully separated. On Roosevelt dimes it refers to fully separation on both the upper and lower parts of the crossbands on the common mullein. Abbreviated as FB .
Full Bell Lines – A descriptive term applied to Franklin half dollars when the lower sets of bell lines are complete. Abbreviated as FBL .
Full Head – A descriptive term applied to Standing Liberty quarters when the helmet of the pass has full detail. Abbreviated as FH
Full Steps – A descriptive terminus applied to a Jefferson nickel when at least 5 steps of Monticello are present. Abbreviated as FS .
Full Strike – The condition for an item that displays crisp, full detail .
FUN Show – The annual convention held in early January sponsored by the Florida United Numismatists ( FUN ) .
Fusible Alloy – Copper mixed with silver to create an debase that would be lighter in burden than copper even have higher intrinsic value. Used to strike certain 1792 convention coins .
G – An abbreviation for Good .
Galvano – The bombastic metallic relief used in the portrayal lathe from which a hub is made .
Garrett, T. Harrison – A scion of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad luck, Garrett developed an interest in numismatics while a student at Princeton circa 1864. By the fourth dimension of his death ( due to a boating accident in Chesapeake Bay ) in 1888, he had the largest solicitation in individual hands in America. This passed finally to his son Robert then to another son John Work Garrett, who added to it. In 1942 it was gifted to The Johns Hopkins University. Selections from the Garrett Collection were sold by us in 1976 and 1979 through 1981, creating a ace at the clock, the total prices realized exceeded $ 25,000,000 .
Garrett, John Work – Son of T. Harrison Garrett, he entered the ambassadorial servicing and served in a count of posts over a long time period of years. In the late 1910s he acquired the family collection from his buddy Robert, and added to it with auction and regular leverage. After his passing it was bequeathed to The Johns Hopkins University. Selections from the Garrett Collection were sold by us in 1976 and 1979 through 1981, creating a sensation at the time .
Garrett, Robert – Son of T. Harrison Garrett, Robert was a medalist in the first modern Olympics held in Athens in 1896. He was heir to the Garrett mint collection, which he kept through the 1910s, then passed it along to his brother John Work Garrett. In 1942 it was gifted to The Johns Hopkins University. Selections from the Garrett Collection were sold by us in 1976 and 1979 through 1981, creating a sensation at the time .
Gem – A descriptive term applied to coins of exceptionally high timbre, typically considered Mint State-65 or Proof-65 or better .
Gem BU – An abbreviation for Gem Brilliant Uncirculated .
Gem Unc – An abbreviation for Gem Uncirculated .
Gem Uncirculated – A rate term reserved for coins of exceptional quality, grading Mint State 65 or 66 .
Generic Coin – A typical or common mint of its type, in average or below median grade. The character of coin for which sight-unseen bid prices are often given .
German Silver – No one has always been able to define “ german silver, ” although the condition is wide used in numismatics. Variations have been called argentan, packfong, Feuchtwanger ’ sulfur Composition, and American silver. This admixture found its chief practice in providing a bum substitute for silver in tableware, ornamental articles, and so forth, and in respective proposals for coinage. generally, german silver contained big proportions of nickel and copper, but besides sometimes zinc, lead, and tin. elemental analysis of certain “ german silver ” tokens has reveals that some actually contained a belittled measure of silver. There were no standards .
Gobrecht – An shorten condition for “ Gobrecht dollar. ”
Gobrecht Dollar – Silver dollars designed by Christian Gobrecht, at the time “ second gear engraver ” at the United States Mint. In 1840 he became head engraver at that facility and remained in that situation until his death in 1844. These were struck in 1836, 1838 and 1839 and were late restruck from the late 1850s to the 1870s .
Gold – Basic elemental metallic. gold coins were beginning minted for circulation in 1795 and stopping point hit for circulation in 1933. From their origin copper was added for intensity, standardized by the Act of January 18, 1837, as 90 % amber and 10 % copper. The copper added a warm rose-colored orange hue to the aureate. sometimes, silver was present as an “ impurity, ” peculiarly for metal lend from California after the Gold Rush, and such pieces have a by and large lighter color. The specification of 10 % allowed for copper allowed amounts of other metals as well, so long as the gold contentedness remained at 90 % .
Gold Certificate – Notes cashable in gold coins including the denominations $ 10 to $ 10,000 in both large-size and small-size formats. The backs of the large size notes were printed in a gold color and the backs of the small-size notes were printed in a k color .
Gold Commem – A telescoped term for gold commemorative .
Gold Commemorative – Two groups of coins are considered gold commemoratives. The first gear group is comprised of the 11 gold coins from the authoritative commemorative series, struck from 1903 to 1926 to honor a person, event or place. The second group is any of the modern United States commemorative gold issues, sometimes called mod gold commemoratives .
Gold Dollar – Small gold coins with a appellation of $ 1 struck from 1849 until 1889 .
Gold Dust – Technically, raw or native gold in powder or chondritic form, as mined or processed. sometimes used in newspaper accounts to refer to gold bullion in general .
Good – A marking term that describes a coin with little detail but outlined major devices. On some coins the rims may be worn to the tops of some letters. This is besides abbreviated as G. The numeric equivalents associated with Good are G-4 and G-6 .
Grade – The condition or sum of wear that a coin or piece of newspaper money has received. by and large, the less wear a coin has received, the more valuable it is .
Grader – An adept who evaluates the condition of coins or paper money .
Grading – The method of numerically quantifying the condition of a coin or wallpaper money .
Grading Service – A commercial enterprise that, for a fee, will encase a coin or while of paper money in a holder or condensation and affix a notation as to an public opinion of grade. synonym : Certification service .
Gram – A system of measurement unit of weight representing 1/1000 kilograms. There are 31.1033 grams per Troy snow leopard .
Grand Watermelon Note – A common term for the $ 1,000 Series of 1890 Treasury Notes. alleged for the three zero on the spinal column that resemble watermelons .
Green Bean – A nickname for the CAC acceptance spine .
Greenback – A condition for a piece of newspaper money that is printed in green on the back with a expression value of $ 1 or higher. This is besides an unofficial democratic term for paper money from the United States in general, popularized by the Legal Tender Notes of the 1860s with green backs ( but not the first to be printed in this color ), and wide used since .
Greysheet – A common name for Coin Dealer Newsletter .
Guide Book – The Guide Book of United States Coins, a favorite single-volume reservoir for combine diachronic and price information of a general nature. This book made its beginning appearance in 1946, bearing a cover go steady of 1947, with Richard S. Yeoman listed as author. Yeoman was an executive of the Whitman Publishing Company, Racine, Wisconsin, which since 1941 had enjoyed success with the annual Handbook of United States Coins, a slender bulk listing dealer buy prices .
Hair – The area of a coin that displays hair, which can be an important expression of the grade .
Hairlines – A serial of hour lines or scratches, normally visible in the field of a coin, caused by cleanse or shining. Often, these are not described, but are factored into the marking process. frankincense, a Proof-63 coin is one that has hairlines and was cleaned at one meter .
Half – A telescoped term for half dollar .
Half Cent – Struck from 1793 until 1857, half cents are the lowest-value mint denomination ever issued by the United States, representing one-two hundredth of a dollar .
Half Disme – The original spell of half dime, with a confront value of five cents. The 1792 half disme is widely considered the first United States coinage struck under authority of the Mint Act of April 1792 and was purportedly struck in John Harper ’ s basement with newly acquired mint presses .
Half Dollar – The appellation with a face value of 50 cents that was beginning hit in 1794. It is still issued today .
Half Eagle – The inaugural aureate coin actually struck for the United States. It had a face value of $ 5 and was struck from 1795-1929. Half eagle means half the value of an eagle, the name for a amber mint with a face respect of $ 10 .
Halogen Light – A potent faint source that enables a viewer to examine coins close. This type of light reveals even the tiniest imperfections .
Hammer Die – The non-stationary upper berth die, typically the obverse. however, on certain issues with mint problems, the overrule was used as the upper die .
Hammer Price – The monetary value at which an item is sold at an auction, not including any extra fees .
Hard Times Tokens – Tokens or monetary substitutes, most of which are the size of large copper cents, issued from 1832 to 1844 inclusive, as cataloged by Lyman H. Low, who published Hard Times Tokens in 1899. strictly speaking the Hard Times earned run average began in 1837 and ended in the spring of 1843, so the numismatic definition is reasonably different. In modern times Russell Rulau has added to the Low number, to the point at which several hundred tokens are now included. This has been a very democratic collect forte for many years .
Haze – A cloudy film, which may occur naturally or be added, seen on the surface of both Proofs and circulation strike coins .
Heraldic Eagle – An emblem of Liberty that resembles the eagles of heraldry, besides called the large eagle .
High End – A coin given a grading number designation, but which an inform perceiver believes is an exceeding specimen within that grade or may be a campaigner for a higher grade .
High Points – Areas of highest relief in a coin design used to help determine the grade of a mint. These are the first little parts to show testify of wear or abrasion, and besides the concluding areas to strike up fully .
High Relief – A coin on which the design features identical deep concave fields. This requires extra atmospheric pressure to achieve a full strike. only a few coins were struck in high relief for the U.S. Mint before their designs were reduced to offer better striking capabilities. An exercise is the MCMVII ( 1907 ) Saint-Gaudens High Relief double eagle .
Hippocampus – Mythical animal display on the 1915-S Panama-Pacific International Exposition $ 2.50. normally pictured as having the fore separate of a horse and the hind part of a fish, the tail sometimes shown in a curl up .
Hoard – A group of coins normally held over a long period of time for either monetary or numismatic reasons .
Hoard Coin – A mint that exists, or existed, in a measure held by an administration or an individual. An example would be the Randall Hoard of copper cents. A wooden keg filled with as-new copper cents was found under an old railroad platform in Georgia erstwhile after the Civil War. It contained thousands of coins dated 1816-1820, and accounts for most of the Mint State examples we have today .
Hoarder – An person who gathers and holds onto a boastfully quantity of numismatic items .
Hobo Nickel – An indian Head ( Buffalo ) nickel which has been engraved with the portrayal of a tramp or other character, frequently by hoboes themselves. These are popular with certain collectors. Some have features indeed classifiable that they have been attributed to particular “ hoboes. ”
Holder Toning – Toning acquired by a coin as a result of being stored in a holder .
Hub – A positive-image punch used to impress a coin ’ sulfur purpose into a die for come to coins .
Impaired Proof – A grade term for a Proof coin that is graded less than Proof-60 .
Incandescent Light – Direct light from a lamp, unlike collateral light such as that from a fluorescent medulla oblongata .
Incomplete Strike – The terminus for a mint that is missing design details due to a problem that occurred during the hit process. This can be due to insufficient strike coerce or improperly space dies .
Incuse Design – The design of a mint that has been impressed below the coin ’ s open. This design was used on indian Head quarter eagles and half eagles to deter forge and improve the coin ’ s lastingness during circulation .
Independent Coin Grading Company (ICG) – ICG is a third party grading service located in Tampa, FL .
Indian Cent – Another term for indian Head cent .
Indian Chief Note – A common name for the $ 5 Series of 1899 Silver Certificates with indian Chief Running Antelope on the grimace .
Indian Head Cent – A small penny designed by James Longacre and issued from 1859 until 1909 .
Indian Head Eagle – A $ 10 gold coin designed by Saint-Gaudens that was issued by the United States from 1907 until 1933 .
Indian Peace Medals – Medals, normally of silver but copper strikings were made besides, including restrikes for collectors, intended to be presented to the chiefs of native american tribes on behalf of the current president of the united states of the United States. This was to show friendship of the government ( which, of class, was discrepant ) and besides to encourage peace on the part of the tribe. The first such medals were engraved and were awarded on behalf of George Washington in 1892. The tradition continued into the late nineteenth hundred .
Indian Penny – A slang terminus for indian Head cent .
Ingot – A slug or bar of metal issued by a mine, refinery, mint, or other establishment working with metals. Gold and argent ingots of the nineteenth century were customarily stamped with information including the burden, honor, issue, a serial number, and sometimes the value and/or the date .
Inscription – The straight-line letter on a coin, unlike legends which follow the curvature .
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Intrinsic Value – The rate of the cute metallic in a numismatic detail based upon the market measure, which may fluctuate on a daily footing. United States coins contained their intrinsic rate in metal until 1933 for aureate coins and 1964 for silver coins. The modern United States issues are termed decree currency .
Iridescence – A lustrous rainbow-like play of colorful toning on the airfoil of a mint .
Jackass Note – A common diagnose for the $ 10 Series of 19869 Legal Tender Notes. These notes have an eagle on the face and when turned top gloomy, the eagle resembles a jack .
Jefferson Nickel – The 5-cent coin designed by Felix Schlag, first hit in 1938 and still issued today .
Juice – Slang for the surcharge, called the buyer ’ s fee, added to the forge price as listed on an auction invoice .
Junk Silver – A term used to describe common date silver neologism taken from circulation that trades based on the bullion spot prices .
Karat – A unit of daintiness representing 1/24th of the gold in a coin. 22 karat coins match to the .916 fine, 24 karats describes theoretically pure gold of 1000 all right, although this is broadly expressed as .9999 finely .
Key Coin – The major or most crucial coin in a specific series. This is normally the most highly valued coin and/or the lowest coinage coin of that series .
Key Date – Generally descriptive of a mint which is considered to be one of the more unmanageable dates to obtain, either in any grade or in a specific degree, within a given series .
Kilogram – The major metric unit of weight representing 1,000 grams or 32.15 Troy ounces .
Knife Edge – Another term for wire boundary .
Lamination – A recess in the airfoil of a mint caused by a flake or strip of metal separating from the planchet .
Large Cent – Issued by the United States from 1793 until 1857, a bombastic copper coin denominated at one-hundredth of a dollar .
Large Date – A term used to describe the size of the numerals of the date on a mint. Using this term implies that there are other varieties for the coin or series, like small go steady or medium date .
Large Eagle – Another terminus for Heraldic Eagle.
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Large Letters – A term used to describe the size of the inscription on a coin. Using this terminus implies that there are other varieties for this coin or series .
Large Motto – A common name for the 1864 two-cent piece with the motto “ IN GOD WE TRUST ” in bombastic letter. This motto was first used on the 1864 two-cent while. Congress mandated this inscription for all coinage and it has been used on about every coin since 1864 .
Large Size – A term used to describe a coin ’ sulfur diameter relative to others in a series. When this term is used it implies that there is a minor size or diameter topic with the lapp motif .
Launder – A derogative term used to describe the clean of paper money to enhance its appearance to numismatists. careful cleanse can be beneficial if done by rights by experts, like removing dirt and dirt .
Lazy Deuce – A common name for a $ 2 Original Series or Series of 1875 National Bank Note. These notes have a big 2 placed horizontally in a lie, or “ lazy, ” position .
LD – An abbreviation for big date .
Lead – Basic elementary metallic element. many splashers ( clichés in French ), or nonreversible strikings on sparse ( normally ) planchets, were made on elemental spark advance, a piano metallic that was easy to use for testing dies in progress or finished dies. A few radiation pattern coins were made in lead, an example being the 1907 $ 20 J-1777. Lead oxidized quickly, and such pieces soon became numb and porous .
Legal Tender – Money that is formally issued by the politics and is recognized for redemption .
Legal Tender Note – Notes issued in large-size and small-size formats of a denomination $ 1 to $ 10,000. This is the initiation of the federal paper-money system and has been for many years .
Legend – The inscription or phrase on a mint that follows the curvature, unlike inscriptions, which are in straight lines .
Lettered Edge – The edge of a coin that displays design elements or an inscription quite than having a plain or reeded edge. The elements can be raised or recessed below the surface .
Lettering – The rudiment characters used in legends, mottos, and other inscriptions on the coat of a coin .
Lib – A shorten terminus for Liberty Head .
Liberty – The symbolic calculate of Miss Liberty used in many U.S. mint designs .
Liberty Cap – A design used on certain early United States half cents and big cents that displays the heading of Miss Liberty with a ceiling on a pole nearby .
Liberty Head – The obverse theme used on most U.S. gold coins from 1838 to 1908. Barber neologism and Morgan dollars are besides sometimes referred to as Liberty Head coins .
Liberty Nickel – A term for the Liberty Head nickel or “ V ” nickel come to from 1883 until 1912. ( Those seen dated 1913 were clandestinely struck and are not regular issues. )
Liberty Seated – The design featuring Miss Liberty seated on a rock, designed by Christian Gobrecht, first used on the Gobrecht dollars of 1836-1839 and then used on about all regular issue eloquent neologism from 1837 through 1891 .
Light Line – The ring of light seen on photograph of coins, specially Proofs. This band besides is seen when a coin is examined under a light .
Lincoln – A shorten term for Lincoln Head penny .
Lincoln Cent – Issued by the United States politics with a side measure of one one-hundredth of a dollar. Designed by Victor D. Brenner, the Lincoln penny was first strike in 1909 and continues to be struck today. The Wheat Ears reversion design was changed to the Memorial Reverse in 1959 .
Lincoln Penny – Another term for Lincoln cent .
Liner – A mint that is on the cusp between two different grades. A 4/5 liner is a coin that is either a high-end MS/PR-64 or a minimum-standard MS/PR-65 .
Lint Mark – A humble incuse or incised mark on the coat of a Proof or Uncirculated coin caused by a stray hair, thread, or other small debris adhering to the die after it was wiped with an greasy rag .
LL – An abbreviation for big letters .
London Fix – The gold price set at a London converge of five well-established, oldline firms which becomes the benchmark for market trade at that time. The price of a transaction is sometimes agreed upon based on the AM or PM London Fix for that sidereal day .
Long Beach – A shorten condition for the Long Beach Coin and Stamp Exhibition held in Long Beach, California three times each year .
Lot – A unique number assigned by the auction firm to an detail or group of items to be sold in a particular auction sale .
Loupe – A overstate glass used to examine coins .
Low End Coin – A coin given a grading number appellation, but which an informed perceiver believes is very in a lower grad or is a minimal model of the delegate grade—an item for the price-conscious buyer and dicker orion .
Luster – The effect that light has on the surface of a coin when reflecting on the stream lines. besides known as a mint ’ s original mint blooming .
Lustrous – A term used to describe a bright coin that distillery has its master mint flower .
Machin’s Mills – A private mint operated by Captain Thomas Machin and associates on the shore of Orange Pond near Newburgh, NY in the late 1890s. Its peculiarity was making counterfeit coins, although genuine Vermont copper coins were fall upon there angstrom well .
Mail Bid Sale – An auction sale where there is no live bid part. Bids are only accept via mail, phone, facsimile or e-mail .
Major Variety – A coin that differs from other coins of the like date, design, type and mint in at least one major design component .
Margin – The blank area at the frame of a note beyond the design or printed data .
Mark – Proposed U.S. coin consisting of 1,000 units. Pattern marks, code 1000, were struck in 1783 as separate of the Nova Constellatio series .
Marks – Scratches or other imperfections that are acquired after the mint is struck and are caused by other coins or foreign objects .
Martha Washington Note – A coarse name for the $ 1 Series of 1886 and 1891 Silver Certificates. The front depicts a portrayal of Martha Washington, the nation ’ second first gear First Lady .
Master Die – The independent die produced from the overlord hub .
Master Hub – The original hub created by the portrayal lathe. master dies are created from this hub .
Matte Proof – A Proof coin that has no mirror-like qualities. The surfaces have a numb, sandblasted appearance. These were minted in the United States chiefly from 1907 to 1916 .
MD – An abbreviation for medium date .
Medal Press – A hard-hitting mint press used to strike medals, patterns, restrikes and some regular-issue Proofs, acquired by the U.S. Mint, circa 1854-1858 .
Medal, Medallion – A commemorative or artistic piece resembling a coin but bearing no denomination or redemption prize, not inevitably issued by any government .
Medalet – Describes a “ small ” ( otherwise undefined ) decoration, much a decoration of less than 20 millimeter. diameter, but particularly if less than about 10 to 12 mm .
Medium Date – A term referring to the size of the numerals of the date on a coin. Using this condition implies that another variety exists for this mint or series, such as a large or small date .
Medium Letters – A term used to describe the size of the letter on a mint. Using this term implies that another assortment exists for this coin or series, such as large or modest letters .
Melt – The intrinsic alloy measure of a finical numismatic token .
Merchant’s Token – A metallic ( normally ) nominal issued by a merchant or other commercial entity to advertise goods or services. Same as memory card. example : the token issue during the Hard Times era by J. Cochran, a Batavia, New York bellfounder .
Mercury Dime – Common name for the Winged Liberty Head dime bag. The wings crowning Miss Liberty ’ second cap are intended to symbolize autonomy of think. Designed by Adolph A. Weinman, these were issued from 1916 until 1945 .
Metal Flow – Describes the flow of alloy on a planchet used to strike a coin, as the dies come together with tens of tons of atmospheric pressure, and squeeze the metal into the different recessions in the die. Metal stream tended to wear away at the surface of the die, finally resulting in coins with a farinaceous preferably than bright surface .
Metal Stress Lines – A term for the radial lines caused by alloy flowing outward from the center of the planchet as the coin is struck .
Micro – Very modest, but not microscopic. example : The 1945-S Micro S dime has an S mintmark that is much smaller than that normally employed on dimes of this ear .
Milling – Technically, the term milling refers to the raised brim on a coin, as imparted by a milling car. however, in popular but faulty parlance mill is sometimes used to refer to the closely spaced vertical rib or reeds on a coin, seen when certain coins are viewed edge-on .
Milling Mark – Staccato-like nicks that appear on the coat of a coin caused by reach with the reeded edge of another coin .
Minor Variety – A coin that differs only slightly from early coins of the lapp design, type, date, and mint .
Mint – A facility for striking coins, traditionally a government means .
Mint Bloom – The effect that light has on the surface of a mint when reflecting on the flow lines. The original shininess on a coin .
Mint Error – A misstruck or defective coin produced by the mint .
Mint Luster – The delicate frost or crystalline shininess imparted on an Uncirculated coin as the dies strike the planchet or blank .
Mint Set – A group of Uncirculated coins from a especial year that includes coins from each mint .
Mint Set Toning – Mint sets issued from 1947-1958 were displayed in cardboard holders. This term refers to the patterns and colors coins acquired from years of storage in these holders .
Mint State – A grade term for a coin that has never been in circulation, corresponding to the numeric grades MS-60 through MS-70. This is besides abbreviated as MS .
Mintage – The count of coins that were struck at a certain mint during a specific class .
Mintmark – A symbol, normally a small letter, used to indicate at which mint a coin was struck. normally given as one password, but sometimes as two. U.S. mintmarks include : C, Charlotte, NC ; CC, Carson City, NV ; D, Dahlonega, GA ( 1838-1861 ) ; D, Denver, CO ( 1906 to date ) ; O, New Orleans, LA ; P or no stigmatize at all, Philadelphia, PA ; S, San Francisco, CA ; W, West Point, NY .
Mishandled Proof – A Proof coin that has been cleaned, significantly abused, or somehow escaped into circulation .
Miss Liberty – The term applied to the diverse versions of the emblematic Liberty represented on United States numismatic items .
Mis-struck – Refers to error coins that have strike irregularities .
ML – An abbreviation for medium letters .
Modification – A minor change in the basic invention of a mint, sometimes creating a new collectible type. exercise : In 1866 the inverse of the half dollar was modified by adding the motto IN GOD WE TRUST .
Morgan – A abbreviated name for “ Morgan dollar. ”
Morgan Dollar – The common mention used for the Liberty Head silver dollar that was designed by Assistant Engraver George T. Morgan. These were struck from 1878 through 1904 and once again in 1921 .
Mottled Toning – Toning that is mismatched and splotchy, normally with numb colors .
Motto – An inscribed word or give voice on a mint .
MS – An abbreviation for Mint State .
Mule – A mint erroneousness where the coin has a mismatched obverse and invert .
Multiple-Struck – Another term for double strike. When a coin is not ejected from the dies and is struck again. To sharpen their details, Proof coins are broadly double struck intentionally and this is sometimes visible .
Mutilated – A term that describes a coin so ill damaged it can no longer be graded .
National Bank – A term used to describe a commercial bank that is incorporated under the laws of the union government. These banks are given a federal lease number, pursuant to the National Banking Act of 1863 and amendments and were regulated by the Comptroller of the Currency, an officeholder of the Treasury Department .
National Bank Note – A note which bears the imprint of a specific National Bank and its location, plus the touch of trust officers, in addition to federal signatures and information .
NCLT – An abbreviation for a non-circulating legal crank coin issued for collectors at a premium, and with a state face respect, but not used in circulation. Term devised by Krause Publications .
New – A term for a coin that has never been in circulation .
New Orleans Mint – A arm of the United States Mint, located in New Orleans, Louisiana that struck coins from 1838 until its seizure in 1861 by the Confederacy ( however some 1861-O half dollars were struck after the seizure ). The mint reopened in 1879 and continued until 1909. This mint uses the “ O ” mintmark .
New York Close – The last price of a given day ’ mho trade for aureate on the New York gold COMEX .
NGC – An abbreviation for the Numismatic Guaranty Corporation .
NGC Black Holder – A beginning generation NGC holder where the inside of the slab was black and not white. The tag was on the change by reversal side. Considered to be highly collectible and sought after .
NGC Census Report – A quarterly reference book published by NGC listing the number of coins graded and their grades .
NGC Fatties – Slang terminus for old holders where the slab is thicker than what is presently in manipulation by NGC. There are several unlike varieties and label styles .
Nick – A little mark on a coin caused by another coin bumping against it or by contact with a harsh or acuate object .
Nickel – A common condition for a 5-cent slice struck in cupro-nickel alloy ( actually 75 % bull, 25 % nickel ) .
No “CENTS” Nickel – A Liberty Head or “ V ” nickel strike in 1883 without a appellation. This caused much confusion and led to the “ racketeer ” nickel scandal .
No Arrows – A terminus applied to coins that do not have arrows by their dates during years when arrows were used on early coins .
No Motto – A term applied to coins struck without the motto, “ IN GOD WE TRUST ” .
No Stars – A term applied to Liberty Seated coins that do not have stars .
No-Grade – A coin that has been returned by a third base party grading service that was not encapsulated ascribable to cleaning, price, questionable authenticity, or many other reasons .
Non-Circulating Legal Tender Coin – A mint issued for collectors at a agio, and with a submit face value, but not used in circulation. Term devised by Krause Publications .
Note – Piece of paper money of $ 1 confront value or higher .
Novodel – A coin mint from dies made former than the date on them and for which there was no original issue. The 1804-dated dollars are novodels as they were beginning minted in 1834 .
Numerical Grading – The Sheldon 1-70 scale used by PCGS, NGC and other third-party scaling services .
Numismatic Guaranty Corporation – A third-party grade overhaul based in Sarasota, Florida .
Numismatic News – A hebdomadally numismatic periodical, started in 1952 .
Numismatics – The skill of money ; coins, newspaper money, tokens, autograph bars, and all related items .
Numismatist – A student or collector of coins, tokens, medals, composition money, or related items .
O – A mintmark used to indicate coins struck at the New Orleans, Louisiana, ramify mint .
Obsolete Note – A note issued by a bank, dragoon, duct, etc., typically of the early nineteenth century, which late became disused, although the issuer may not have become insolvent ( as contrasted with better bank notes, from insolvent institutions ) .
Obverse – The front or confront side of a mint, broadly the side with the date and the principal invention .
Oct – A abbreviated term for octangular, which refers to the Pan-Pac octangular commemorative $ 50 coin .
Off Center – A mint strickle on a blank which was not properly centered over the lower die .
OGH – An abbreviation for “ Old Green Holder ” which includes all generations of PCGS holders with a luminosity fleeceable cut-in preferably than a blue insert .
OH – An abbreviation for “ Old Holder. ”
O-Mint – An slang term for coins struck at the New Orleans, Louisiana, outgrowth mint .
Open Collar – A device used for striking early U.S. coins whose edges had already been stamped with letter or reeding. This device restrains and positions a planchet above the lower die .
Opening Bid – The start price of a lot during a live auction, determined by the presale wish on that specific distribute .
Orange-Peel Surfaces – So named because of its resemblance to the skin of an orange, the dimple-textured fields seen on many Proof gold coins. Some Mint State gold dollars and $ 3 amber coins display this consequence to some degree .
Original – A term used to describe any aspect of a coin that retains its original state, and has not been dipped, cleaned, or altered in any way .
Original Roll – Coins wrapped in wallpaper and stored at the prison term of their issue. All the coins in the original bankroll have the same date, appellation, and mintmark and broadly will have alike tone and luster .
Original Toning – A term used to describe the color naturally acquired by a coin that has never been cleaned or dipped. original tone ranges in color from light-pale yellow to highly dark blues, grays, browns, and tied black .
Over Dipped – The condition for a mint whose luster has been stripped or dulled by besides many baths in a dunk solution .
Overdate – A coin strike from a die with a date that has one year punched over a different year .
Overgraded – A coin bearing a grading appellation higher than it should .
Over-Mintmark – A mint strike with a die on which one mintmark is engraved over a unlike mintmark .
Overstrike; Overstruck Coin – A mint hit over another previously struck mint, sometimes of a different variety show or type, rather of on a blank planchet .
Oxidation – The geological formation of oxides or tarnish on the surface of a coin from exposure to air out, damp, industrial fumes, or other elements .
P – A mintmark used to indicate coins struck at the primary mint in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania .
Panama-Pacific Exhibition – An exhibition held in San Francisco, California, in 1915 to celebrate the completion of the Panama Canal .
Pan-Pac – A shorten term for Panama-Pacific Exhibition .
Pan-Pac Slug – A common name for either the octangular or the polish 1915-dated Panama-Pacific $ 50 commemorative coins .
Paper Money – Another term for currency .
Paper Money Guaranty – A third-party newspaper money grading service located in Sarasota, Florida .
Patina – A green or brown surface film found on ancient bull and bronze coins caused by oxidation over a long menstruation of time. sometimes used to refer to toning of any imbue .
Pattern – A trial or experimental coin, typically a new design, denomination, size, or alloy. Patterns were besides much struck in metals early than that primitively proposed .
PCDA – An abbreviation for the Professional Currency Dealers Association .
PCGS – An abbreviation for Professional Coin Grading Service, a third party grading serve located in Newport Beach, CA .
PCGS Doily Holder – A PCGS Slab with PCGS printed in an interlock practice resembling a doily .
PCGS Population Report – A quarterly reference book published by PCGS listing the phone number of coins graded by PCGS and their grades .
PCGS Regency Holder – A large holder that was used by PCGS for particular collections .
Peace Dollar – The coarse list used for the silver dollar designed by Anthony De Francisci. These were struck from 1921 to 1935 to commemorate the peace that followed World War 1. The 1921 coins featured a senior high school Relief design ; in 1922 the relief was lowered to a regular easing which was used until the end of the design in 1935 .
Pedigree – The listing of a coin ’ s current owner plus all known previous owners .
Penny – A common term for a 1-cent United States mint .
Peripheral Toning – Coloring around the boundary of a coin, which can range from light to dark .
PF – An alternate abbreviation for Proof .
Philadelphia Mint – The primary United States mint, located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, established in 1792 .
Pinhole – On a piece of paper money, a bantam hole made by a alloy peg. In the nineteenth hundred in particular, before the newspaper clip came into habit, a metal pin was used to attach a bill to a letter or document, or to fasten several notes together for repositing or transit. In in other instances, travelers sometimes stitched bills to the lining of a coat by a train of thought, for security, this creating pinholes .
Pioneer Gold – A condition for privately issued gold coins struck anterior to 1861. broadly associated with the private issues from California and early post-1848 ore finds in Nevada, Oregon, and Colorado .
PL – An abbreviation for prooflike .
Plain Edge – A categoric, smooth edge seen chiefly on small-denomination coinage, such as the nickel .
Planchet – The blank piece of metallic on which a coin design is stamped. besides called a lacuna .
Planchet Defect – Any defects on a coin caused by an imperfect planchet being struck .
Planchet Flaw – An guerrilla fix in a coin blank, normally the result of a lamination that has broken away .
Planchet Striations – Fine, incuse lines normally resulting from polishing blanks, typically found on some Proof coins .
Plated – A coin that has been coated with a flimsy layer of metallic element. For example, goldplate copper strikings of sealed U.S. form coins .
Platinum – A cute metallic element infrequently used for neologism. The entirely United States issues struck in platinum are the pattern half dollars of 1814 and the mod platinum Eagles .
Plugged – A coin that has had a hole filled. typically they are then expertly done that it can alone be discerned under magnification .
PMG – An abbreviation for Paper Money Guaranty .
P-Mint – A term for coins struck at the main mint in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania .
PNG – Abbreviation for Professional Numismatists Guild .
PNG Certificate – A document that guarantees authenticity and is issued to a coin owner, a duplicate of which is kept on file at PNG. This certificate is completed by a PNG dealer prior to third-party grading services .
PO – Abbreviation for Poor .
Polished Coin – A mint that has been buffed or subjected to some other treatment to give it a mirrorlike surface, after it was struck. A polish coin is a damaged coin .
Polished Die – The term for a die that has been basined to remove collide marks or other die injury. Proof dies were basined to impart mirrorlike surfaces, resulting in coins with reflective fields .
Political Token – A metallic ( normally ) token issued in connection with a local anesthetic, state, national, or other political candidate or in connection with a political movement or situation. example : tokens date 1837 satirizing President Andrew Jackson .
Polyvinyl Chloride – A chemical used to make coin flips fictile, but which besides causes some coins to turn park .
Poor – A grade term that describes a coin with a clear date and mintmark, but fiddling more. barely identifiable as to type but not dreadfully damaged ( such as holes ). This is besides abbreviated as PO. The numeric equivalent associated with Poor is PO-1 .
Pop Report – A slang term for a roll published by a commercial scaling service, showing how many coins have been graded and at what levels. besides known as a population report .
Population – The entire number of coins that have been certified within a particular grade by a given grading service .
Porous – A descriptive term for a rough in or chondritic surface, typically seen on pre-1816 copper coins .
Porthole Note – A common name for the $ 5 Series of 1923 Silver Certificates. The boldness depicts a portrait of Lincoln surrounded by a heavy human body which resembles a transport ’ second port .
PQ – An abbreviation for premium quality .
PR – An abbreviation for Proof .
Premium – The respect a coin may hold in excess of its elementary intrinsic value, expressed as an actual dollar sum or percentage .
Premium Quality – An unofficial condition designating a mint within a grade an especial exemplar. however, in the market the term is much misused, as some sellers consider all coins to be premium Quality. Abbreviated PQ .
Presentation Striking – A particularly struck mint, often a Proof or an exceptionally sharply business assume, given to a very important person or early person .
Press – Any kind of coining machine .
Prestrike – A coin struck earlier than the year on the die. case : many 2000 Proof coins were prestrikes made in 1999 but not released until 2000 .
Price Guide – A periodical list approximate prices for numismatic items .
Price List – Another condition for fix price list .
Price Realized – The final examination measure for which a batch is sold at auction, including the buyer ’ south premium .
Printage – The accurate or estimated quantity of notes printed .
Pristine – Coins that are typically graded Mint State or Proof 67 or higher are considered pristine. This term describes coins in unimpaired and original condition .
Professional Coin Grading Service – A third-party grade service located in Newport Beach, California, established in 1985 .
Professional Currency Dealers Association – An administration of paper-money dealers .
Professional Numismatists Guild – An arrangement of numismatic dealers founded in 1955 .
Proof – A mint fall for collectors using particularly polished or differently organize dies and a cautiously selected planchet. Some Proofs are mint doubly to bring up the details of the design. The term denotes a method acting of fabrication, not a grade .
Proof Dies – Dies which are particularly prepare, frequently sandblasted or acid-picked, and used entirely to strike Proof coins. Often, the fields of Proof dies are highly polished which results in a mirrorlike finish, and the recessed areas are left bare to create frost devices .
Proof Note – A term to describe impressions made from a accomplished or partially complete plate, for trial purposes to illustrate its appearance. typically they have no serial numbers, or barely zeros in place of a serial number, and may besides be missing other elements like signatures and Treasury seals. These are normally only printed on one side .
Proof Set – A mint set sold by a mint containing Proof issues from a particular year. A few exceptions exist, such as the 1804 dollar and eagle in 1834 presentation Proof sets .
Prooflike – An Uncirculated coin with a mirrorlike brooding come on but lacking the full characteristics of a Proof. abbreviation : PL. This condition is most often used with Morgan dollars .
Proof-Only Issue – A coin struck only in Proof, no circulation-strike counterpart was ever made .
Provenance – Another term for pedigree .
Publish – To issue, as to publish a decoration. The term is most conversant with print corporeal, but it is equally appropriate for medals. For exercise, the Manly decoration of George Washington was published in 1790 .
Punch – A steel perch, one goal containing a device, date, lettering or other symbol, that would be hammered into a working die .
Put-Together Roll – A apparently original coil that has been gone through and, typically, the best circumstance coins have been removed and replaced with lesser quality coins .
PVC – An abbreviation for polyvinyl chloride .
PVC Damage – A film that may form on a coin that has been stored in flips that contain PVC. normally fleeceable or, in the early stages, clear and sticky .
PVC Flip – A cushy, fictile coin repositing envelope or “ flip ” that contains the chemical PVC .
Quarter – A coarse term for a U.S. mint of the 25 cent denomination .
Quarter Eagle – A United States $ 2.50 gold coin. These were first struck in 1796, and then struck sporadically until the appellation was discontinued in 1929 .
Questionable Toning – Color on a mint that does not appear to be natural .
Quint – Proposed U.S. coin consisting of 500 units ( out of 1,000, the concluding representing a mark ). convention quints, marked 500, were struck in 1783 as separate of the Nova Constellatio series .
Racketeer Nickel – A goldplate 1883 No “ CENTS ” Liberty Head 5-cent coin ( “ V ” nickel ). Since the coin lacked the word “ CENTS ” it created the opportunity for people to misrepresent its value to be $ 5 rather of 5 cents. The most celebrated narrative is of Josh Tatum, a deaf mute, who would pay for items with these coins and in tax return receive change for a $ 5.00 mint. He was soon arrested and at his test it was discovered he never asked for change since he could not speak, so no crime had been committed. The Mint later that year put the words “ CENTS ” at the buttocks of the invert .
Rainbow Note – A common term for the Series of 1869 Legal Tender Note with the denominations $ 1, $ 2, $ 5, or $ 10. These notes have a colored front and a green overprint, therefore the list .
Rainbow Toning – Toning on a coin containing a full spectrum of color, including yellow, orange, bolshevik, green, anil and sometimes even black. This is normally seen on silver dollars that were stored in bags .
Rare – A relative terminus indicating a coin within a detail series that is difficult to find or one of which merely a few are known to exist. It may besides apply to any coin with numismatic rate as opposed to bullion rate .
Rarity – A condition referring to the number of specimens that exist within a particular grade and those graded higher .
Rarity Scale – The numeral rat arrangement used to quantify the rarity of a numismatic item .
Rattler – A beginning generation PCGS holder .
Raw – A coin or other numismatic detail that has not been encapsulated by a third base party grading service .
Rays – A design component on a mint comprised of lines that represent sunday rays .
RB – An abbreviation for red and brown, descriptive of the coloring material of a copper coin .
RD – An abbreviation for crimson .
Real – A genuine numismatic item. besides a condition for the basic division of the Spanish-American silver neologism organization, which was legal tender in the United States until the execution of the Act of February 21, 1857. One very is deserving 12.5 cents U.S .
Red – The term applied to a copper mint that retains 95 % or more of its master color, typically abbreviated as RD when used as part of a description or in the grade .
Redbook – The park name for A Guide Book of United State Coins, which is an annual price guide and mention book first issued in 1947 .
Red-Brown – The descriptive term applied to a copper coin that retains between 5 % and 95 % of its original mint color, typically abbreviated as RB when used as part of a description or in the mark .
Reeded Edge – The edge of a mint with furrow lines that run vertically around its margin .
Reeding Mark(s) – A commemorate or serial of marks on the airfoil of a coin caused when the reeded border of another mint strikes the surface. besides known as a mill distinguish .
Regular Issue – Refers to a mint that was struck for commerce. These can be regular strikes, angstrom well as die trials of a regular issue. besides known as circulation hit or commercial hit .
Regular Strike – Another terminus for circulation strike, which is a coin strike using conventional methods .
Reholder – To take a certify mint in a scrape or unsightly slab, or one with a typographic error on the pronounce, and put it in a new holder at the lapp grade .
Relapped Die – A die that has had its surface reground at the Mint, to remove traces of clothing, clash marks, etc. This summons much imparts a prooflike character to the dies .
Relief – Any partially of a coin ’ randomness design that is raised above the coin ’ s surface .
Remainder – A piece of currency or plane of currency printed for a bank, but never distributed. The remainder can have full or partial derivative data filled in, such as serial count, date, and bank officer names, but normally is blank in those spaces. Most remainder notes are in high grades .
Replica – A reproduction or replicate of a numismatic detail .
Repunched Date – A date that is punched into a fail and then punched again in slenderly different alignment .
Repunched Mintmark – A mint letter on a mint that shows slightly doubling of the features, or represents a correctly aligned letter punched over one entered at an lean .
Reserve – The lowest auction price at which a seller is willing to sell an item .
Restrike – A coin strike from actual dies at a date later than the master offspring. Examples include the 1915 austrian 4 Ducats, 1947 mexican 50 Pesos, and 1908 hungarian 100 Korona .
Retoned – A term for a coin that has been cleaned or dipped, and has over meter find color, either by natural or artificial means .
Reverse – The side of a mint carrying the design of lesser importance. Opposite of the obverse side. Although there are many exceptions, for many types of coins the obverse bears the date and a portrayal, and the reversion has an eagle, build, or wreath .
Riddler – A screen car used by mints to sort out planchets of the wrong shape or size prior to striking .
Rim – The raise parcel of a coin encircling the obverse and reverse which protects the designs of the mint from wear .
Rim Ding – Another term for flange dent .
Rim Nick – An indentation or marker on the rim of a numismatic detail .
Ring Test – A test used to determine if a coin was struck or is an electrotype or draw copy. The march entails balancing the coin on a finger and gently tapping it with a alloy object and listen to the resulting sound. Struck coins have a high resound or tone, while electrotypes and mold copies have little or none. This test is not constantly accurate .
Rip – A slang condition for a numismatic detail that was purchased well below the price at which it can be resold .
Roll – A specific count of coins, all of the like denomination, stored in a coin wrapping. primitively rolls were stored in wallpaper wrappers ; today the wrappers are likely to be made of fictile .
Roll Friction – The minor translation of alloy, most much seen on the high points of coins that were stored in rolls .
Rolled Edge – The raised border around the circumference of a mint .
Rolled Edge Ten – A park identify for the regular exit 1907 indian Head eagle .
Roller Marks – Parallel incuse lines visible on a coin after it is struck, believed to be caused when the strips of metal are pulled through guide bars insuring the strips are the proper thickness .
Roman Finish – An experimental Proof surface used in 1909 and 1910 chiefly on U.S. aureate coins. The surface appears lepidote, alike to Satin Proof finishes, and is more reflective than matte surfaces but less therefore than brainy Proofs .
Rotated Die – When one of the dies became free in the mint imperativeness, it rotated from its normal orientation course. Coins struck from such dies show alignment unlike from the norm, the average normally being alliance 180 degrees apart ( coin-wise alignment ) or in the same direction ( medal-wise conjunction ) .
Round – A cut term for the Pan-Pac polish commemorative $ 50 mint. This may besides refer to a one-ounce silver decoration or bullion piece .
Rub – When the gamey points of a coin have the smallest hound of wear .
S – A mintmark used to indicate coins struck at the San Francisco, California outgrowth mint .
S VDB – An abbreviation for the 1909-S V.D.B. Lincoln Head penny .
Saint – A common identify for the Saint-Gaudens designed double eagle aureate coin that was struck from 1907 until 1933 .
Saint-Gaudens – Used to refer to Augustus Saint-Gaudens, the leading sculptor of the late 19th and early on twentieth century. Chosen by Theodore Roosevelt to redesign the neologism of the state, he redesigned the eagle and double eagle in 1907. many consider his $ 20 gold piece, besides called the Saint-Gaudens, to be the most beautiful U.S. coin .
San Francisco Mint – A ramify of the United States Mint, located in San Francisco, California, that struck coins from 1854 until 1955, and again from 1965 to the present sidereal day. This mint uses the “ S ” mintmark .
Satin Finish – An experimental Proof surface used after 1907 on U.S. gold coins. The dies were treated to create a satiny open on the coins .
Satin Luster – A satiny, very well finish up seen by and large on copper and nickel clientele strikes. Coins with satin shininess have about no “ cartwheel ” impression .
Scarce, Rare, etc. – The terms scarce, rare, etc., are proportional. A Morgan or Peace dollar considered scarce or rare may be a lot more ample than a Liberty Seated dollar described as such. A street car keepsake of 1880, of which 500 are known to exist, would be considered to be common in the context of street car tokens. however, the 1895 Morgan silver dollar, of which about 500 are known, is recognized as a classic rarity within the Morgan dollar series, as many thousands are known of all other dates and mintmarks .
Scratch – A deep line or groove in a mint caused by contact with a sharp or rough in object .
Screw Press – The U.S. Mint ’ s beginning type of coining press invented by Donato Bramante. The press had a fixed lower die and an upper die attached to a rod with screw-like threads. Weighted arms attached to the perch would be rotated and the prison guard mechanism quickly moved the perch with the die down, striking the planchet placed into the lower die. The fall coin was then ejected and the serve was repeated .
SD – An abbreviation for little date .
Sea Salvage Coin – A coin recovered from the ocean, normally from a embark crash .
Seated – A shorten terminus for the Liberty Seated design on United States argent neologism .
Seated Coinage – Coins bearing the Liberty Seated design .
Second Charter Note – A common term for Series of 1882 National Bank Notes, with no footing in Treasury documents .
Second Generation Rattler – The second generation PCGS holder, which is a freight train holder with a disjoined out closed chain .
Second Toning – Toning that occurs after a coin is dipped or cleaned, whether by natural or artificial means .
Semi-Common – A term to identify coins that are neither barely nor common .
Semi-Numismatic – Coins that have a significant bullion value and some numismatic value. The most acknowledge examples are common date Liberty Head and Saint-Gaudens doubly eagles .
Semi-Prooflike – A mint that has some mirror-like open, but not enough to be called “ prooflike ” because some satin or frosty luster is apparent .
Series – A specific motif or invention used over a period of fourth dimension. This can refer to a single denomination, or in some cases, respective denominations. For case, the Peace dollar design was merely used for silver dollars, while the Liberty Seated serial included multiple denominations ( dime, stern, half dollar, dollar, etc. ) .
Sesqui – A bowdlerize condition for “ Sesquicentennial ” which refers to the gold quarter eagle or silver one-half dollar commemorative coins .
Set – A collection of coins in a series, a solicitation of types or a collection from a specific mint .
Set Registry – A number of graded sets of coins specific to the one-third party grading service by which they were graded. example : PCGS Set Registry .
Sharp Strike – Refers to a coin with all of its infinitesimal design details sharply defined .
Sheet of Notes – An untrimmed group of notes, as printed. Large-size paper money of 1861-1929 contained four notes, early small-size wallpaper money of the late 1920s contained 12 notes cut apart into two 6 eminence sheets and modern size paper money sheets have 36 notes .
Sheldon – The last identify of Dr. William H. Sheldon, a numismatist who wrote the germinal solve on 1793 to 1814 big cents .
Sheldon Book – The major reference book on large cents, first published in 1949 as early american Cents, written by Dr. William H. Sheldon. The ledger was updated in 1958 and included Walter Breen and Dorothy Paschal as authors under a new name, Penny Whimsy .
Sheldon Numbers – The reference numbers assigned to 1793 to 1814 large cents in the Sheldon books, early american Cents and Penny Whimsy. These are typically abbreviated and listed as S-1, S-2, etc .
Sheldon Scale – A system designed by Dr. William H. Sheldon for grading boastfully cents that first appeared in his 1949 book, early american Cents. The Sheldon Scale incorporates numerical grades ranging from 1 to 70 and corresponds with a range of descriptive grades. Poor-1 is the lowest grade and Mint State 70 is the highest degree .
Shield – A design featured on certain series of coins that have vertical and horizontal lines in the shape of a shield .
Shield Nickel – The coarse name for the Shield 5-cent United States coins that were struck from 1866 until 1883 .
Shiny Spots – Areas on Matte, Roman, and Satin Proof coins where the original open, which is supposed to appear dulled, has been disturbed .
Show – The common diagnose for a bourse, mint convention, or coin appearance .
Sight Seen – A term meaning that the buyer of a specific numismatic detail in a specific grade wants to view the coin before committing to its buy .
Sight Unseen – A term entail that the buyer of a specific numismatic detail in a particular grade will pay a certain price without having to examine the item first base .
Silver – A precious metallic element. It besides refers to coins struck in silver, which are generally comprised of 90 % flatware and 10 % copper, with exceptions .
Silver Certificate – Note issues in large-size and small-size formats, cashable in silver dollars, late in silver bullion, in the denominations $ 1 to $ 1,000 .
Silver Commem – A abbreviated terminus for silver medal commemorative coins .
Silver Commemoratives – Coins issued to recognize or honor a person, home, or consequence. These 90 % eloquent and 10 % copper debase coins were struck at assorted times from 1892 until 1954, and again after 1982 .
Silver Dollar – Silver coins with a denomination of $ 1 that were struck from 1794 through 1935, in a writing of 90 % silver and 10 % copper .
Silver Dollar Note – A common list for the $ 5 Series of 1886 Silver Certificates. The design on the back is printed in green and contains the images of five Morgan silver dollars .
Silver Nickel – A common name for a Wartime nickel .
Silver Plug – In decree to bring a planchet to the proper burden, a silver punch was inserted into a hole in the center of the planchet on certain early on american english coins. This was then flattened out when the coin was struck .
Silver-Clad – A mint that is comprised of 40 % silver and 60 % copper, such as the Kennedy half dollars, which were struck from 1965-1970 .
Skirt Lines – On Walking Liberty half dollars, these are the lines that represent the folds in Liberty ’ s flowing gown .
SL – An abbreviation for modest letters .
Slab – Universally used nickname for a seal plastic holder issued by a third gear party grading service and labeled with a scaling impression .
Slabbed – Sending a coin to a third-party grading service to have it authenticated, graded, and encapsulated in a sonically sealed holder .
Sleeper – A numismatic token that is undervalued or underpriced .
Slider – A term used to describe a mint that looks like a higher mark. The term is most frequently used to describe an AU coin that appears Uncirculated .
Slug – A common term for the octangular and round $ 50 gold coins struck during the California Gold Rush. These large two-and-one-half ounce gold coins purportedly got their list because criminals used them as weapons and would wrap these in fabric and “ slug ” their victims on the head. The 1915 Pan-Pac $ 50 amber commemorative issues are besides referred to as slugs .
Small Cent – The reduced-size cents that replaced the large copper cents in 1857 .
Small Date – A term used to describe the size of the numerals of the date on a mint. Using this terminus implies that there are early varieties for the mint or series, such as large or medium dates .
Small Eagle – The mint design showing a plain eagle on a perch, first used on the 1794 half dime and half dollar .
Small Letters – A term used to describe the size of the letter used in the design on a coin. Using this term implies that there are other varieties for the mint or series, such as boastfully or medium letters .
Small Motto – A park name for the 1864 two-cent man with the motto “ IN GOD WE TRUST ” in little letter. This motto was first used on the 1864 two-cent patch. Congress mandated this inscription for all coinage and it has been used about always since 1864 .
Small Size – A term used to describe a mint ’ s particular diameter in a series. When this terminus is used it implies that there is a boastfully size or diameter with the same motif .
S-Mint – An abbreviation for coins struck at the San Francisco, California, branch mint .
SMS – An abbreviation for particular Mint Set .
SP – An abbreviation for Specimen Strike .
Spark-Erosion Die – A die that is made by the electrolytic deposition proficiency has surfaces that are very roughly, with about rust-like pimples. The surfaces must be polished to remove the surface imperfections .
Spark-Erosion Strike – A coin made from spark-erosion dies. These are distinguished by the “ pimples ” or pitting in the easing areas .
Special Mint Set – A hardened of alone coins that were neither circulation strikes nor Proofs. First struck in limited quantities in 1965 and formally released in 1966-1967, these were intended to replace Proof sets, which had been discontinued as region of the U.S. Mint ’ s efforts to stop mint hoarding. The Mint then resumed issuing Proofs in 1968 .
Specimen – Special coins struck at the batch from 1792-1816. These coins display many characteristics of the late Proof neologism. Abbreviated as SP and besides referred to as specimen strikes .
Specimen Note – Another condition for proof note .
Split Grade – The rehearse once wide employed, including extensively by the American Numismatic Association Certification Service ( ANACS ), to grade each side of a coin individually. consequently, a Morgan silver dollar might be graded MS-63/65, entail that the obverse is 63, the revoke 65. today, this enlightening method acting is rarely used .
Splotchy Toning – Color, uneven in shade and typography, on the surface of a numismatic detail .
Spot – A general term for the discolor area on a numismatic token. A touch or spots can affect the grade of a mint depending on size, austereness, placement, and other factors .
Spot Price – The grocery store price of valued metals in bullion shape at the moment a transaction is finalized .
Spread – The difference in price between bid and ask .
St. Gaudens – A sawed-off terminus for Augustus Saint-Gaudens or for the Standing Liberty double eagle he designed .
Standard Dollar – Regular silver dollar, as the Morgan type. Term used to differentiate the 412.5 grain flatware dollar from the 420 grain trade dollar .
Standard Silver – The Mint Act of 1792 established the official typography of U.S. silver coinage at approximately 89 % argent and 11 % copper. It was late changed to 90 percentage silver and 10 percentage copper, which is the musical composition seen in most U.S. silver coins .
Standing Liberty – A invention motif with Miss Liberty in an upright front-facing position .
Standing Liberty Quarter – The common list used for the Liberty Standing silver quarter that was designed by Hermon MacNeil. These were struck from 1917 until 1930 .
Staple Scratch – A line on a coin caused by removing it improperly from a staple cardboard holder .
Star – A design element on many U.S. coins depicting a five-pointed or six-pointed motif .
Star Note – A note with a start next to the serial number to indicate that it is a successor note, which means it was printed as a ersatz for a defective notice that was immediately destroyed. This process began with Silver Certificates of 1910. The serial phone number of the star note does not match that of the note being replaced .
State Quarter – Washington quarters struck with unique reverse designs for each state. First issued in 1999, subsequent issues followed in the orderliness of a department of state ’ s entree to the United States. The order for the original 13 colonies was determined by the date each submit ratified the Constitution .
Steam-Powered Press – A mint press powered by a steam engine .
Steel Cent – A mention for the 1943 cents, struck in steel and plated with zinc. Certain 1944 cents were struck in steel with the left over blanks .
Steelies – A common name for 1943 steel cents .
Stella – A common name for the experimental $ 4 gold coins struck by the U.S. Mint from 1879-1880. The name is derived from the bombastic leading on the mint ’ second reverse .
Stock Edge – A counterfeit edge collar used to produce counterfeit coins .
Store Card – A metallic ( normally ) token issued by a merchant or other commercial entity to advertise goods or services. Same as merchant ’ south token. case : the tokens issued in 1837 by Smith ’ mho Clock Establishment, New York City .
Store Cards – During the nineteenth hundred there was a dearth of little change. merchant tokens were created to help alleviate this deficit. These were typically composed of copper and were widely accepted in their immediate areas .
Stress Lines – Another term for “ flow lines. ”
Striations – Raised lines on coins that are caused by the incuse polish lines on a die. These tend to be very well, parallel lines, although they can be swirling or even criss-crossed. Planchet striations are burnishing lines that are not struck away by the mint work and appear as incuse lines on the coins .
Strike – The act of minting a mint. besides the mean acuteness of detail for a particular coin .
Striking – Refers to the process by which a mint is minted. besides refers to the distinctness of design details. A crisp hit or strong assume is one with all of the details struck very aggressively ; a unaccented assume has the details lightly impressed at the time of coining .
Strip – A apartment man of alloy, rolled to proper thickness, from which mint planchets are cut .
Struck – A terminus used to describe a mint or numismatic object, produced from dies and a coin press .
Struck Copy – A replica of a coin made from dies, but not inevitably intended to deceive .
Struck Counterfeit – A forge mint produced from false dies .
Surface Preservation – The condition of a numismatic item ’ s come on .
Surfaces – The entire obverse and invert of a coin .
Sweating – A serve whereby coins are placed in a bag and shaken vigorously to knock off small pieces of metallic element. The bits of metallic are gathered and sold, producing a net income as the coins are returned to circulation at front rate. Done chiefly with gold coins, leaving their surfaces peppered with bantam nicks .
Tab Toning – Often seen on commemorative coins that were sold in cardboard holders with a round of golf tab key, the coins have a tone r-2 in the center .
Tail Feathers – The feathers that make up the eagle ’ south tail on the reverse of certain U.S. coins. Most frequently used when describing Morgan flatware dollars .
Target Toning – A term for color distribution resembling an archery target on a coin. The deep colors are on the outer periphery and slice to white or off white at the center of the coin .
Technicolor Note – A common term for the Series of 1907 large-size Gold Certificates. Derived because the faces of these notes have a gold tint to part of the newspaper, part of the inscription is in gold ink and a bright crimson Treasury seal and consecutive numbers .
Teddy’s Coin – A park appoint for J-1776, the unique gold strike of the 1907 indian Head duplicate eagle, designed by Augustus Saint-Gaudens at the request of President Theodore Roosevelt .
Ten – The coarse term for a $ 10 gold coin, besides known as an eagle .
Ten Indian – A park name for the $ 10 gold indian Head eagle .
Ten Lib – A common identify for the $ 10 gold Liberty Head eagle .
Territorial Gold – Gold coins and bars that were privately struck during the assorted amber rushes .
TF – An abbreviation for stern feathers .
Thaler – The Germanic spell of the name for the silver-dollar size coins from Europe, from which the English give voice “ dollar ” is derived .
The Numismatist – A monthly periodical published by the American Numismatic Association .
Third Charter Note – A common term for the Series of 1902 National Bank Notes, with no footing in Treasury documents .
Third-Party Opinion – An impression of a numismatic token ’ mho grade supplied by a person or ship’s company other than the buyer and seller of the coin .
Three – A shorten term for the indian Head $ 3 gold coin .
Three Cent Nickel – Three-cent coins struck from 1865 to 1889 containing 75 % copper and 25 % nickel with a Liberty Head theme. The design by James B. Longacre was copied from christian Gobrecht ’ s earlier Liberty Head motif .
Three Cent Silver – Three-cent coins with a leading motif hit from 1851 to 1873 in eloquent alloy. This is the smallest of the silver coins and was designed by James B. Longacre .
Threepence – Coin in the british system, besides used in sealed early american issues ( 1737 Higley coppers, 1783 Chalmers threepence ), equivalent to three pennies ( penny ) or ¼ shill .
Thumbed – A term used to describe a coin that has been doctored by rubbing the thumb lightly over marks, hairlines, or other disturbances. The oils in the clamber assistant to disguise these problems .
Tin – Metal component. Used in numismatic text to describe coins in a soft silver-colored admixture, better called white metallic element. Judd listings as can are in the introduce textbook called white alloy. pure or about pure tin oxidizes at cold temperatures, producing unsightly black “ tinpest. ”
Tinted Paper – Paper used to make currentness that has color embedded in the material preferably than applying color to the surface during printed. An example would be a series of 1869 Legal Tender “ Rainbow Note. ”
Tissue Toning – Coins that are stored in the original mint wallpaper can much acquire colored, normally vibrant, toning caused by the sulfur in the newspaper reacting with the metals in the coin .
Token – A privately issued man, used typically with an exchange value for goods or services but not formally issued by the United States government .
Tombstone Note – A common term for the Series of 1886, 1891 and 1908 Silver Certificates. The side depicts the asleep vice president, Thomas A. Hendricks, surrounded by a inning that is shaped like a gravestone. It is not known whether this was designed or not .
Toning – Natural patination or stain of a mint ’ s airfoil caused by the atmosphere over a long period of time. Often very attractive, many collectors prefer coins with this feature .
Tooling Mark – Lines found on both genuine and counterfeit coins, most frequently little and fine, these are caused by touching up the dies .
Top Pop – Slang for a coin with a grade that is the highest listed for that particular assortment within a population report .
Trade Dollar – A U.S. eloquent coin, issued from 1873 until 1885, intended for circulation in Asia to compete with dollar-sized coins from other countries. It is slenderly heavier than the regular ash grey dollar and was made with marginally higher silver content in an attempt to gain credence in commerce throughout the earth. Designed by William Barber .
Transfer Die – A die created by using an existing mint as the model .
Transitional – Shortened term for transitional exit .
Transitional Issue – A coin hit before a series starts, after a series ends, or a coin strike with either the obverse or the reverse of a discontinued series. Or, a mint mint with the obverse or inverse for a newly issued series .
Treasure Coin – A mint discovered from a shipwreck or from a buried or hidden beginning .
Treasury Department – A branch of the United States politics that controls the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, the Federal Reserve System, the neologism mints, and other monetary agency .
Treasury Hoard – Generally a terminus referring to hundreds of millions of silver dollars held by the United States Treasury Department from the nineteenth century through the early twentieth hundred. Most coins in the hoard were distributed in 1962-1964, after which only about three million remained, to be sold by the General Services Administration ( GSA ) .
Treasury Note – Another term for a Coin Note .
Treasury Seal – An emblem of the Treasury Department used on the boldness of all federal currency. They vary in size, color and the edge purpose, but the basic design features a pair of scales above and a key under, with inscription surrounding. Used from 1862 to the deliver day, on all denominations $ 1 and higher, in addition to fourthly and fifth issues of Fractional Currency .
Trial Strike or Striking – Another terminus for die trial .
Trime – The common name for a 3-cent silver U.S. coin .
Troy Ounce – The principal whole of weight unit in the troy organization, generally used in precious metallic transactions. The troy thump contains 12 troy ounces .
Truncation – The bottom edge of a portrait or raid. example : The neck shortness of Miss Liberty on an 1850 $ 20 .
Twenty – Common term for a double eagle or $ 20 gold coin .
Twenty Lib – Common name for $ 20 gold Liberty Head double eagle .
Two and a Half – Common condition for a quarter eagle or $ 2.50 dollar gold coin .
Two-Cent Piece – A park name for the Shield two-cent mint designed by James Longacre, struck from 1864 to 1873 .
Type – A serial of coins defined by a shared signalize design, size, metallic subject, denomination or other chemical element .
Type Coin – A example mint from a particular issue of a specific purpose, size, denomination, or metallic content, normally a common date for the serial .
Type One – Term for any coin from the first type within a series .
Type One Buffalo – An indian Head nickel dated 1913 that has a bison on a raised mound on the reversion .
Type One Gold Dollar – The amber dollar struck from 1849 until mid-1854 in Philadelphia and for the broad class in Dahlonega and San Francisco with a Liberty Head design .
Type One Nickel – The five-cent coin struck from 1938 until mid-1942 and from 1946 until the show day with a Jefferson Head obverse .
Type One Quarter – The one-fourth struck from 1916 to mid-1917. This Standing Liberty design features a bare-breasted Miss Liberty, a bare forefront detail, and no stars under the change by reversal eagle .
Type One Twenty – Double eagles struck from 1850 until mid-1866 with the Liberty Head design. These coins did not have a motto on the rearward and the denomination was indicated as “ TWENTY D. ”
Type Set – A collection comprised of one representative coin of each type, particular to a period or series .
Type Three – Any mint from the third type within a series .
Type Three Gold Dollar – Gold dollar with a little indian Head design, hit from 1856 until the series ended in 1889. The San Francisco Mint did not receive the type three dies in time to strike the new invention in 1856, so the coins from that mint have the type two style .
Type Three Twenty – Liberty Head doubly eagles struck from 1877 until the series ended in 1907. They have the motto “ IN GOD WE TRUST ” on the reverse and have “ TWENTY DOLLARS ” for the appellation .
Type Two – Term for any coin from the second base type within a series .
Type Two Buffalo – An amerind Head nickel struck from mid 1913 until the serial ended in 1938, with a bison shown on charge ground on the reverse .
Type Two Gold Dollar – Gold dollar with the large indian Head design, struck from mid-1854 until 1855 in Philadelphia, Charlotte, Dahlonega, and New Orleans .
Type Two Nickel – The five-cent mint with the Jefferson Head plan, struck from mid-1942 until 1945. These are identified by a big mintmark above Monticello on the turn back and are composed of silver, manganese, and copper. The first U.S. coins to have a “ P ” mintmark to indicate they were struck at the Philadelphia Mint .
Type Two Quarter – The quarter struck from mid-1917 until the series ended in 1930. This Standing Liberty design features Miss Liberty with a cover breast, three stars under the overrule eagle, and a more intricate head design .
Type Two Twenty – Double eagles with the Liberty Head design, struck from mid-1866 until 1876. These coins have the motto “ IN GOD WE TRUST ” on the invert and have “ TWENTY DOL. ” for the appellation .
Ultra Cameo – A condition that means deep Cameo, used by the third base party grading service NGC. Applied typically to a Proof coin, or a prooflike coin with deeply frosted cardinal devices and lettering in high contrast with the mirror like fields. sometimes these are called “ black and blank ” cameo .
Ultra High Relief – Alternate terminus for highly high relief .
Ultra Rare – A numismatic token that is represented by alone a few examples .
Unc – An abbreviation for Uncirculated .
Uncirculated – A coin or numismatic detail in newfangled discipline, which has seen no wear and has not been circulated, but may show marks from udder storage .
Underbidder – One that executes the bid preceding the winning wish .
Undergraded – A coin bearing a scaling designation lower than it should .
Unique – A numismatic detail of which only one specimen is known to exist .
Unsold – An token that did not sell through auction because it did not receive bids equal to or greater than the reservation .
Used – A term that describes a coin that has light to heavy clothing or circulation .
VAM Number – A number system designed to catalog each die combination of Morgan and Peace dollars listed in The Complete Catalog and Encyclopedia of United States Morgan and Peace Silver Dollars by Leroy Van Allen and A. George Mallis .
Van Allen-Mallis – The authors of The Complete Catalog and Encyclopedia of United States Morgan and Peace Silver Dollars. This reference book was first published in 1971 and reprinted in 1998 .
Variety – A mint ’ sulfur purpose that sets it apart from the normal topic of that type. These variations can include the size of the date, mintmark and/or placement of either .
VDB – An abbreviation for the 1909 V.D.B. Lincoln Head penny, which are the initials for designer Victor D. Brenner .
Very Fine – A grade term that describes a coin that has about 45-80 % of the master contingent depending on the numerical grade assigned to the objet d’art, besides abbreviated as VF. VF-35 coins have closely 80 % contingent and this decreases to about 45 % detail on the VF-20 coins. The numeral equivalents associated with Very Fine are 20, 25, 30 and 35 .
Very Good – A scaling terminus that describes a coin that is heavily wear but the major devices and letter are still for the most separate net, depending on how high the degree. This is besides abbreviated as VG. The numeral equivalents associated with very good are 8 and 10 .
Vest Pocket Dealer – A person who sells coins or early numismatic items on a part time basis .
VF – An abbreviation for Very Fine .
VG – An abbreviation for very good .
Vignette – The blueprint elements on a bank note, including allegorical scenes, historic motifs and portraits .
V-Nickel – A common condition for the five-cent coins with the Liberty Head blueprint, fall from 1883 through 1912, thus called because of the big letter “ V ” on the reverse. ( The 1913 issue was struck clandestinely and is not listed in mint reports. )
W – A mintmark used to indicate coins struck at the West Point, New York, branch mint .
Walker – A park diagnose for a Walking Liberty half dollar .
Walking Liberty – A common name for a Walking Liberty one-half dollar .
Walking Liberty Half Dollar – The name used for the half dollars designed by A.A. Weinman, struck from 1916 through 1947 featuring Miss Liberty walk .
War Nickel – A cut condition for Wartime nickel .
Wartime Nickel – Five-cent coins composed of 56 % copper, 35 % silver, and 9 % manganese strike during World War II .
Washington Quarter – A sawed-off condition for the Washington quarter dollar .
Washington Quarter Dollar – Issued by the United States politics with a face value of 25 cents. Designed by John Flanagan, the Washington quarter was foremost come to in 1932 as a circulating commemorative coin to celebrate the two-hundredth anniversary of George Washington ’ s birth. It continues to be struck today. A special bicentennial turn back was issued in 1976, and in 1999 the obverse was redesigned and the State quarter series began .
Watermelon Note – A common term for the $ 100 Series of 1890 Treasury Notes alleged for the two zero on the back that resemble watermelons .
Watery Look – A descriptive condition for the crinkled, brooding polish seen on the surfaces of most close-collar proof coins as a leave of highly polished planchets and dies .
Weak Strike – A coin with certain of its details ( in the areas of high respite ) not amply formed because of the hardness of debase, insufficient strike coerce, or improper die spacing .
Wear – The abrasion of metallic from a mint ’ s surface caused by normal cover and circulation .
West Point Mint – A branch of the United States Mint, located in West Point, New York that manufactures american Eagle Uncirculated and Proof coins, all sizes of Proof and Uncirculated ash grey, gold and platinum american Eagle coins, commemorative coins mandated by Congress, and stores platinum, amber and eloquent bullion. This was officially designated by Congress as a mint on March 31, 1988. This mint uses the “ W ” mintmark .
Wheat Pennies – The common term for Lincoln cents with pale yellow ears on the turn back, issued from 1909 to 1958 .
Wheel Mark – Another term for “ count machine mark. ”
White Metal – A pewter-like metallic element, of no fixed specifications, employing lead, can, antimony, and early elements to create a metallic silver medal in appearance but fairly delicate. The democratic term pewter is sometimes used in the playing field of antiques and artifacts to describe such items ; the term is not widely used for radiation pattern coins. White metallic was used to strike many different patterns in the nineteenth hundred and tokens and medals in the nineteenth century and later. In general, white metal was not chemically stable, and sometimes pieces oxidized or blistered. Sometimes white metallic strikings have been described as being in tin .
Whizzing – The change of a mint ’ mho appearance by use of a rotate bristled ( wire or other material ) brush to move or remove metallic element from the surface. This process generally gives a coin the artificial appearance of being in a higher grade than it actually is. Areas of a whizz mint normally show a serial of moment scratches or surface disruptions simulating artificial luster, and the buildup of metallic ridges on raised letters or other design features .
Wire Edge – The condition for a thin, wire-like section of the rim of a mint that is raised above the stay of the rim along the outside perimeter. This is typically caused by very high dramatic imperativeness, and tends to occur largely on Proof and high easing strikings. Can besides be a common terminus for the Wire Edge Indian Head eagle of 1907 .
Wire Edge Eagle – The $ 10 gold coin of 1907 with the indian Head purpose of which only 500 were struck. This is technically a pattern and features a fine wire brim and surfaces which were both satiny and striated unlike any other United States issue .
Wire Edge Ten – A common term for the Wire Edge Indian Head eagle of 1907 .
Wire Rim – Another term for wire border .
With Arrows – A telescoped term for arrows at the date .
With Arrows and Rays – Another term for arrows and rays .
With Motto – Another term for motto .
With Rays – Another term for rays .
W-Mint – An abbreviation for coins struck at the West Point, New York, ramify mint from 1988 to present .
Working Die – A fail produced from a working hub and used to strike coins .
Working Hub – A hub made from a overlord die used to create the working dies .
World Coins – A condition that refers to any coins from countries other than the United States .
Worn Die – A die that has lost detail from over use. Coins struck from wear dies frequently appear weakly hit.
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Wreath Cent – A common mention for the second gear big penny type of 1793 .
XF – Another abbreviation for Extremely Fine, or EF .
Zerbe Proof – The 1921 Morgan dollars specially struck for numismatist and Mint friend Farran Zerbe .